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KEY POINTS

KEY POINTS

  • Right heart syndromes (RHS) as a cause of hemodynamic instability and shock are less common than left heart dysfunction but recognizing them requires a high level of vigilance.

  • RHS result from a combination of pressure or volume overload and impaired right ventricular (RV) contractility. Progression to acute right heart failure (the combination acute pulmonary hypertension with profound RV systolic and diastolic dysfunction) involved pathological interventricular interdependence, RV ischemia and spiraling end-organ dysfunction.

  • Clues to recognizing RHS as a cause of shock include a history of a condition that is associated with pulmonary hypertension, elevated neck veins, peripheral edema greater than pulmonary edema, or a right-sided third heart sound, in addition to electrocardiographic, radiographic, and echocardiographic findings.

  • Plasma biomarkers are nonspecific but echocardiography is extremely valuable, not only for demonstrating the presence of RHS but also for guiding hemodynamic management.

  • Progressive right heart shock can be worsened by excessive fluid infusion, concomitant left ventricular failure, inappropriate application of extrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and hypoxia.

  • The drug of choice for resuscitation to reduce systemic oxygen demand while improving oxygen delivery is dobutamine, initially infused at 5 μg/kg/min. Systemically active vasoconstrictors may provide additional benefit.

  • Inhaled prostacyclin and oral PDE inhibitors (eg, sildenafil) or extracorporeal mechanical-assist devices may be beneficial in improving pulmonary hemodynamics and oxygenation but may not improve survival.

INTRODUCTION

In the majority of patients with shock due to “pump failure,” assessment is focused appropriately on the left ventricle (LV; Chap. 33). However, in a substantial minority of patients, right heart dysfunction is the cause of shock. Examples include acute pulmonary embolism (PE), other causes of acute right heart pressure overload (eg, acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS] treated with positive pressure ventilation [PPV]), acute deterioration in patients with chronic pulmonary hypertension (PH), and right ventricular (RV) infarction. Although RV infarction differs from the other right heart syndromes (RHS) in that the pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) is not high, in many other regard RV infarction resembles the other syndromes, so we will consider them together. Failure to consider the right heart in the differential diagnosis of shock risks incomplete or inappropriate treatment of the shock. It would be hard to overemphasize the importance of echocardiography, both in aiding the recognition of the RHS and in guiding management. In this chapter, we review the notable features that distinguish the right heart from the left, describe the themes that unify the acute RHS and allow their recognition, discuss the pathophysiology and differential diagnosis of RHS, and review their specific management.

RIGHT VENTRICULAR PHYSIOLOGY

The right ventricle (RV) has long been considered the “forgotten ventricle,” because under normal pressure and volume loading conditions the RV is thought to function as a passive conduit for systemic venous return. When the pulmonary vasculature is normal, RV performance has little impact on the maintenance of cardiac output. In ...

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