Skip to Main Content

We have a new app!

Take the Access library with you wherever you go—easy access to books, videos, images, podcasts, personalized features, and more.

Download the Access App here: iOS and Android

At a glance

Genetic disorder affecting the eyes (blindness), ears (deafness), face, kidneys, and bones.


FOAR Syndrome.


The incidence remains unknown. It is a very rare medical condition with fewer than 10 cases reported in the literature.

Genetic inheritance

It is most likely transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. FOAR Syndrome and Donnai-Barrow Syndrome are believed to be the same entity.

Clinical aspects

Characterized by anomalies of the eye (high myopia, iris coloboma, retinal detachment, chorioretinal atrophy, poorly differentiated maculae, cataract, glaucoma), the face (macrocephaly, flat nasal bridge, true hypertelorism, telecanthus, antimongoloid slanting of the palpebral fissures, prominent eyebrows), the ears (moderate-to-severe sensorineural deafness), the skeleton (epiphyseal dysplasia of the femoral heads), and the kidneys (structural abnormalities, proteinuria, hematuria, aminoaciduria). Psychomotor development may range from moderately delayed to normal.

Precautions before anesthesia

No special precautions other than the usual patient preparation for a general anesthesia.

Anesthetic considerations

Patients often present for eye surgery (retinal detachment). No anesthetic complications have been reported. Airway management is not expected to be difficult. Check renal function (creatinine, blood urea nitrogen) and serum concentrations of protein, electrolytes, and hemoglobin (renal anemia) preoperatively. Patients are blind and deaf; consequently, their cooperation may be reduced. Sedative and anxiolytic premedication and the presence of the primary caregiver during induction of anesthesia may be helpful.

Pharmacological implications

Ketamine and succinylcholine should not be used in the presence of increased intraocular pressure. Avoid using drugs with predominantly renal elimination in patients with decreased kidney function. Carefully titrate highly protein-bound drugs because hypoproteinemia may result from proteinuria and lead to increased concentrations of the free drug.

Other conditions to be considered

  • ☞Donnai-Barrow Syndrome: Genetic disorder responsible for diaphragmatic hernia, exomphalos, absent corpus callosum, hypertelorism, eye anomalies, and sensorineural deafness.

  • ☞Waardenburg Syndrome, Type I: Characterized by a wide bridge of the nose resulting from lateral displacement of the inner canthus of each eye, pigmentary disturbance (frontal white blaze of hair, heterochromia iridis, white eye lashes, leukoderma), and cochlear deafness. Severity varies widely; some affected persons escape deafness. Confusion between Facio-Oculo-Acoustico-Renal (FOAR) Syndrome and Waardenburg Syndrome is frequent.


Devriendt  K, Standaert  L, Van Hole  C,  et al: Proteinuria in a patient with the diaphragmatic hernia-hypertelorism-myopia-deafness syndrome: Further evidence that the faciooculoacoustico-renal syndrome represents the same entity. J Med Genet 35:70, 1998.  [PubMed: 9475100]
Schowalter  DB, Pagon  RA, Kalina  RE,  et al: Facio-oculo-acoustico-renal (FOAR) syndrome: A case report and review. Am J Med Genet 69:45, 1997.  [PubMed: 9066882]

Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.