Complete absence of tears.
Deficient lacrimation and punctate corneal
abrasions from infancy. Hypoplasia of lacrimal glands.
Examine the eyes for preexisting corneal
lesions and obtain a history of corneal abrasions. The eyes should be well
lubricated during anesthesia to prevent corneal abrasions.
Alacrima can refer to a disorder
in association with achalasia, addisonism, hyperuricemia, and ectodermal
Achalasia-Alacrima Syndrome: Inherited disorder but in a small
minority can be an acquired abnormality induced by the formation of
antibodies that block ACTH receptors. Fluid and electrolyte disorders. In
contrast to Addison disease, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis
functions normally. Regurgitation and aspiration occur upon induction.
Allgrove Syndrome: Triple A syndrome is a genetic autosomal
recessive disease characterized by the triad of ACTH-resistant
insufficiency, achalasia, and alacrima. It appears in the first decade of
life with severe hypoglycemic episodes, which can cause death. Mixed pattern
of upper and lower motor neuropathy, sensory impairment, autonomic
neuropathy, and mental retardation. Regurgitation and aspiration occur upon
Christ-Siemens-Touraine Syndrome: Genetic disorder
characterized by the association of hypohidrosis, hypotrichosis, and
defective dentition with peculiar facies. Consequences are related to
thermoregulation and exocrine gland insufficiency.
Schinzel-Giedion Syndrome: Distinct dysmorphic syndrome of
congenital hydronephrosis, skeletal dysplasia (open cranial sutures, steep
short skull, wide occipital synchondrosis), and severe developmental
retardation. Coarse facies characterized by midface retraction, bulbing
forehead, facial hemangiomas, short nose with anteverted nostrils,
protruding large tongue, and hypertelorism. Death usually occurs during
Mondino BJ, Brown SI: Hereditary congenital alacrima. Arch Ophthalmol