1Used as an alternative to lidocaine, but TNS also occurs with mepivacaine.
2Each change of 15 mg prolongs or hastens ambulatory milestones by 20–30 minutes. Fentanyl 10 μg extends surgical block but not ambulatory recovery times and should probably be added if using 30 mg dose to ensure adequate duration.
3Very low dose (4–5 mg) works well for ambulatory, unilateral, knee surgery. Keep patient lateral, affected side down, for 6 minutes after block.