1. Ruark JE, Raffin TA. Initiating and withdrawing life support. Principles and practice in adult medicine. N Engl J Med.
2. Emanuel EJ. Should physicians withhold life-sustaining care from patients who are not terminally ill? Lancet.
3. Burns JP, Edwards J, Johnson J, et al. Do-not-resuscitate order after 25 years. Crit Care Med.
4. Tobin MJ. Advances in mechanical ventilation. N Engl J Med.
5. Jayes RL, Zimmerman JE, Wagner DP, et al. Do-not-resuscitate orders in intensive care units. Current practices and recent changes. JAMA.
6. Hall RI, Rocker GM. End-of-life care in the ICU: treatments provided when life support was or was not withdrawn. Chest.
7. Ferrand E, Robert R, Ingrand P, Lemaire F. Withholding and withdrawal of life support in intensive-care units in France: a prospective survey. French LATAREA Group. Lancet.
8. Lee DK, Swinburne AJ, Fedullo AJ, Wahl GW. Withdrawing care. Experience in a medical intensive care unit. JAMA.
9. Pochard F, Azoulay E, Chevret S, et al. French intensivists do not apply American recommendations regarding decisions to forgo life-sustaining therapy. Crit Care Med.
10. Cook D, Rocker G, Marshall J, et al. Withdrawal of mechanical ventilation in anticipation of death in the intensive care unit. N Engl J Med.
11. Smedira NG, Evans BH, Grais LS, et al. Withholding and withdrawal of life support from the critically ill. N Engl J Med.
12. Azoulay E, Sprung CL. Family-physician interactions in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med.
13. Cook D. Patient autonomy versus parentalism. Crit Care Med. 2001; 29:N24–N25.
14. Luce JM. New standards for patient rights and medical competence. Crit Care Med.
15. Way J, Back AL, Curtis JR. Withdrawing life support and resolution of conflict with families. BMJ.
16. Beauchamp TL. Methods and principles in biomedical ethics. J Med Ethics.
17. Carlet J, Thijs LG, Antonelli M, et al. Challenges in end-of-life care in the ICU. Statement of the 5th International Consensus Conference in Critical Care: Brussels, Belgium, April 2003. Intensive Care Med.
18. Truog RD, Cist AF, Brackett SE, et al. Recommendations for end-of-life care in the intensive care unit: the Ethics Committee of the Society of Critical Care Medicine. Crit Care Med.
19. Luce JM, Alpers A. End-of-life care: what do the American courts say? Crit Care Med. 2001;29:N40–N45.
20. Prendergast TJ, Puntillo KA. Withdrawal of life support: intensive caring at the end of life. JAMA.
21. Singer PA, Lowy FH. Rationing, patient preferences, and cost of care at the end of life. Arch Intern Med.
22. Good care of the dying patient. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association. JAMA. 1996;275:474–478.
23. Quill TE. Perspectives on care at the close of life. Initiating end-of-life discussions with seriously ill patients: addressing the “elephant in the room.” JAMA.
24. Emanuel LL. Facing requests for physician-assisted suicide: toward a practical and principled clinical skill set. JAMA.
25. Emanuel EJ, Daniels ER, Fairclough DL, Clarridge BR. The practice of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the United States: adherence to proposed safeguards and effects on physicians. JAMA.
26. Faber-Langendoen K, Lanken PN. Dying patients in the intensive care unit: forgoing treatment, maintaining care. Ann Intern Med.
27. Abbott KH, Sago JG, Breen CM, et al. Families looking back: one year after discussion of withdrawal or withholding of life-sustaining support. Crit Care Med.
28. Quill TE, Brody H. Physician recommendations and patient autonomy: finding a balance between physician power and patient choice. Ann Intern Med.
29. Azoulay E, Pochard F, Chevret S, et al. Half the family members of intensive care unit patients do not want to share in the decision-making process: a study in 78 French intensive care units. Crit Care Med.
30. Azoulay E, Pochard F, Kentish-Barnes N, et al. Risk of post-traumatic stress symptoms in family members of intensive care unit patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.
31. Sprung CL, Eidelman LA. Worldwide similarities and differences in the foregoing of life-sustaining treatments. Intensive Care Med.
32. Campbell ML, Bizek KS, Thill M. Patient responses during rapid terminal weaning from mechanical ventilation: a prospective study. Crit Care Med.
33. Tonelli MR. Waking the dying: must we always attempt to involve critically ill patients in end-of-life decisions? Chest.
34. Azoulay E, Chevret S, Leleu G, et al. Half the families of intensive care unit patients experience inadequate communication with physicians. Crit Care Med.
35. Johnson D, Wilson M, Cavanaugh B, et al. Measuring the ability to meet family needs in an intensive care unit. Crit Care Med.
36. Azoulay E, Pochard F, Chevret S, et al. Meeting the needs of intensive care unit patient families: a multicenter study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.
37. Pochard F, Azoulay E, Chevret S, et al. Symptoms of anxiety and depression in family members of intensive care unit patients: ethical hypothesis regarding decision-making capacity. Crit Care Med.
38. Epstein RM, Alper BS, Quill TE. Communicating evidence for participatory decision making. JAMA.
39. Heyland DK, Tranmer JE. Measuring family satisfaction with care in the intensive care unit: the development of a questionnaire and preliminary results. J Crit Care.
40. Sjokvist P, Nilstun T, Svantesson M, Berggren L. Withdrawal of life support—who should decide? Differences in attitudes among the general public, nurses and physicians. Intensive Care Med.
41. Wasser T, Pasquale MA, Matchett SC, et al. Establishing reliability and validity of the critical care family satisfaction survey. Crit Care Med.
42. Hanson LC, Danis M, Garrett JM, Mutran E. Who decides? Physicians’ willingness to use life-sustaining treatment. Arch Intern Med.
43. Cuthbertson SJ, Margetts MA, Streat SJ. Bereavement follow-up after critical illness. Crit Care Med.
44. Covinsky KE, Goldman L, Cook EF, et al. The impact of serious illness on patients’ families. SUPPORT Investigators. Study to Understand Prognoses and Preferences for Outcomes and Risks of Treatment. JAMA.
45. Malacrida R, Bettelini CM, Degrate A, et al. Reasons for dissatisfaction: a survey of relatives of intensive care patients who died. Crit Care Med.
46. Lilly CM, De Meo DL, Sonna LA, et al. An intensive communication intervention for the critically ill. Am J Med.
47. Dowdy MD, Robertson C, Bander JA. A study of proactive ethics consultation for critically and terminally ill patients with extended lengths of stay. Crit Care Med.
48. Schneiderman LJ, Gilmer T, Teetzel HD. Impact of ethics consultations in the intensive care setting: a randomized, controlled trial. Crit Care Med.
49. Lynn J, Teno JM, Phillips RS, et al. Perceptions by family members of the dying experience of older and seriously ill patients. SUPPORT Investigators. Study to Understand Prognoses and Preferences for Outcomes and Risks of Treatments. Ann Intern Med.
50. A controlled trial to improve care for seriously ill hospitalized patients. The study to understand prognoses and preferences for outcomes and risks of treatments (SUPPORT). The SUPPORT Principal Investigators. JAMA. 1995;274:1591–1598.
51. Quill TE, Dresser R, Brock DW. The rule of double effect—a critique of its role in end-of-life decision making. N Engl J Med.
52. Luce JM, Alpers A. Legal aspects of withholding and withdrawing life support from critically ill patients in the United States and providing palliative care to them. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.
53. Sulmasy DP, Pellegrino ED. The rule of double effect: clearing up the double talk. Arch Intern Med.
54. Sulmasy DP, Sood JR, Ury WA. The quality of care plans for patients with do-not-resuscitate orders. Arch Intern Med.
55. Quill TE. The ambiguity of clinical intentions. N Engl J Med.
56. Keenan SP, Busche KD, Chen LM, et al. A retrospective review of a large cohort of patients undergoing the process of withholding or withdrawal of life support. Crit Care Med.
57. Quill TE. Barbiturates in the care of the terminally ill. N Engl J Med.
1993;328:1350; author reply 1351.
58. Holzapfel L, Demingeon G, Piralla B, et al. A four-step protocol for limitation of treatment in terminal care. An observational study in 475 intensive care unit patients. Intensive Care Med.
59. Brody H, Campbell ML, Faber-Langendoen K, Ogle KS. Withdrawing intensive life-sustaining treatment—recommendations for compassionate clinical management. N Engl J Med.
60. Krishna G, Raffin TA. Terminal weaning from mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med.
61. Faber-Langendoen K. The clinical management of dying patients receiving mechanical ventilation. A survey of physician practice. Chest.
62. Cook DJ, Meade MO, Perry AG. Qualitative studies on the patient’s experience of weaning from mechanical ventilation. Chest. 2001; 120:469S–473S.
63. Barnato AE, Herndon MB, Anthony DL, et al. Are regional variations in end-of-life care intensity explained by patient preferences? A study of the US Medicare population. Med Care.
64. Pronovost P, Angus DC. Economics of end-of-life care in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2001;29:N46–N51.
65. Guidelines for intensive care unit admission, discharge, and triage. Task Force of the American College of Critical Care Medicine, Society of Critical Care Medicine. Crit Care Med. 1999;27:633–638.
66. Understanding costs and cost-effectiveness in critical care. Report from the second American thoracic society workshop on outcomes research. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;165:540–550.
67. Luce JM, Rubenfeld GD. Can health care costs be reduced by limiting intensive care at the end of life? Am J Respir Crit Care Med.
68. Danis M, Mutran E, Garrett JM, et al. A prospective study of the impact of patient preferences on life-sustaining treatment and hospital cost. Crit Care Med.
69. Emanuel EJ. Cost savings at the end of life. What do the data show? JAMA.
70. Studdert DM, Mello MM, Burns JP, et al. Conflict in the care of patients with prolonged stay in the ICU: types, sources, and predictors. Intensive Care Med.
71. Burns JP, Mello MM, Studdert DM, et al. Results of a clinical trial on care improvement for the critically ill. Crit Care Med.
72. Zhang B, Wright AA, Huskamp HA, et al. Health care costs in the last week of life: associations with end-of-life conversations. Arch Intern Med.
73. Sprung CL, Cohen SL, Sjokvist P, et al. End-of-life practices in European intensive care units: the Ethicus Study. JAMA.
74. Vincent JL. Forgoing life support in western European intensive care units: the results of an ethical questionnaire. Crit Care Med.
75. Prendergast TJ, Claessens MT, Luce JM. A national survey of end-of-life care for critically ill patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.
76. Esteban A, Gordo F, Solsona JF, et al. Withdrawing and withholding life support in the intensive care unit: a Spanish prospective multi-centre observational study. Intensive Care Med.
77. Eidelman LA, Jakobson DJ, Worner TM, et al. End-of-life intensive care unit decisions, communication, and documentation: an evaluation of physician training. J Crit Care.
78. Keenan SP, Busche KD, Chen LM, et al. Withdrawal and withholding of life support in the intensive care unit: a comparison of teaching and community hospitals. The Southwestern Ontario Critical Care Research Network. Crit Care Med.
79. Faber-Langendoen K, Bartels DM. Process of forgoing life-sustaining treatment in a university hospital: an empirical study. Crit Care Med.
80. Faber-Langendoen K. A multi-institutional study of care given to patients dying in hospitals. Ethical and practice implications. Arch Intern Med.
81. Meissner A, Genga KR, Studart FS, et al. Epidemiology of and factors associated with end-of-life decisions in a surgical intensive care unit. Crit Care Med.
82. Prendergast TJ, Luce JM. Increasing incidence of withholding and withdrawal of life support from the critically ill. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.
83. Jakobson DJ, Eidelman LA, Worner TM, et al. Evaluation of changes in forgoing life-sustaining treatment in Israeli ICU patients. Chest.
84. Azoulay E, Adrie C, De Lassence A, et al. Determinants of postintensive care unit mortality: a prospective multicenter study. Crit Care Med.
85. Cooke CR, Hotchkin DL, Engelberg RA, et al. Predictors of time to death after terminal withdrawal of mechanical ventilation in the ICU. Chest.
86. Withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining therapy. This official statement of the American Thoracic Society was adopted by the ATS board of directors, March 1991. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1991;144:726–731.
87. Curtis JR, Vincent JL. Ethics and end-of-life care for adults in the intensive care unit. Lancet.
88. Asai A, Fukuhara S, Lo B. Attitudes of Japanese and Japanese-American physicians towards life-sustaining treatment. Lancet.
89. Mebane EW, Oman RF, Kroonen LT, Goldstein MK. The influence of physician race, age, and gender on physician attitudes toward advance care directives and preferences for end-of-life decision-making. J Am Geriatr Soc.
90. Vincent JL. Cultural differences in end-of-life care. Crit Care Med. 2001;29:N52–N55.
91. Abizanda R, Almendros Corral L, Balerdi Perez B. Ethical aspects of intensive medicine. Results of an opinion survey [in Spanish]. Med Clin (Barc).
92. Asch DA, Hansen-Flaschen J, Lanken PN. Decisions to limit or continue life-sustaining treatment by critical care physicians in the United States: conflicts between physicians’ practices and patients’ wishes. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.
93. Asch DA, DeKay ML. Euthanasia among US critical care nurses. Practices, attitudes, and social and professional correlates. Med Care.
94. Cook DJ, Guyatt GH, Jaeschke R, et al. Determinants in Canadian health care workers of the decision to withdraw life support from the critically ill. Canadian Critical Care Trials Group. JAMA.
95. Heyland DK, Rocker GM, O’Callaghan CJ, et al. Dying in the ICU: perspectives of family members. Chest.
96. Teres D. Trends from the United States with end of life decisions in the intensive care unit. Intensive Care Med.
97. Wenger NS, Pearson ML, Desmond KA, et al. Epidemiology of do-not-resuscitate orders. Disparity by age, diagnosis, gender, race, and functional impairment. Arch Intern Med.
98. Giannini A, Pessina A, Tacchi EM. End-of-life decisions in intensive care units: attitudes of physicians in an Italian urban setting. Intensive Care Med.
2003;29:1902–1910 Epub 2003 Sep 11.
99. Cardoso T, Fonseca T, Pereira S, Lencastre L. Life-sustaining treatment decisions in Portuguese intensive care units: a national survey of intensive care physicians. Crit Care. 2003;7:R167–R175.
100. Nava S, Sturani C, Hartl S, et al. End-of-life decision-making in respiratory intermediate care units: a European survey. Eur Respir J.
101. Bloomer MJ, Tiruvoipati R, Tsiripillis M, Botha JA. End of life management of adult patients in an Australian metropolitan intensive care unit: a retrospective observational study. Aust Crit Care.
102. Wunsch H, Linde-Zwirble WT, Harrison DA, et al. Use of intensive care services during terminal hospitalizations in England and the United States. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.
103. Mani RK, Mandal AK, Bal S, et al. End-of-life decisions in an Indian intensive care unit. Intensive Care Med.
104. Bertolini G, Boffelli S, Malacarne P, et al. End-of-life decision-making and quality of ICU performance: an observational study in 84 Italian units. Intensive Care Med.
105. Brieva JL, Cooray P, Rowley M. Withholding and withdrawal of life-sustaining therapies in intensive care: an Australian experience. Crit Care Resusc.
106. van der Maas PJ, van der Wal G, Haverkate I, et al. Euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and other medical practices involving the end of life in the Netherlands, 1990–1995. N Engl J Med. 1996;335:1699–1705.
107. Consensus report on the ethics of foregoing life-sustaining treatments in the critically ill. Task Force on Ethics of the Society of Critical Care Medicine. Crit Care Med. 1990;18:1435–1439.
108. Vincent JL. Information in the ICU: are we being honest with our patients? The results of a European questionnaire. Intensive Care Med.
109. Emanuel EJ, Emanuel LL. Four models of the physician-patient relationship. JAMA.
110. Seale C. Hastening death in end-of-life care: a survey of doctors. Soc Sci Med.
111. Loggers ET, Maciejewski PK, Paulk E, et al. Racial differences in predictors of intensive end-of-life care in patients with advanced cancer. J Clin Oncol.
112. Sprung CL, Maia P, Bulow HH, et al. The importance of religious affiliation and culture on end-of-life decisions in European intensive care units. Intensive Care Med.
113. McLean RF, Tarshis J, Mazer CD, Szalai JP. Death in two Canadian intensive care units: institutional difference and changes over time. Crit Care Med.
114. Angus DC, Barnato AE, Linde-Zwirble WT, et al. Use of intensive care at the end of life in the United States: an epidemiologic study. Crit Care Med.
115. Sprung CL, Geber D, Eidelman LA, et al. Evaluation of triage decisions for intensive care admission. Crit Care Med.
116. Azoulay E, Pochard F, Chevret S, et al. Compliance with triage to intensive care recommendations. Crit Care Med.
117. Garrouste-Orgeas M, Montuclard L, Timsit JF, et al. Triaging patients to the ICU: a pilot study of factors influencing admission decisions and patient outcomes. Intensive Care Med.
118. Wu SC, Chen JS, Wang HM, et al. Determinants of ICU care in the last month of life for Taiwanese cancer decedents, 2001 to 2006. Chest.
119. Sharma G, Freeman J, Zhang D, Goodwin JS. Continuity of care and intensive care unit use at the end of life. Arch Intern Med.
120. Seferian EG, Afessa B. Adult intensive care unit use at the end of life: a population-based study. Mayo Clin Proc.
121. Teno JM, Clarridge BR, Casey V, et al. Family perspectives on end-of-life care at the last place of care. JAMA.
122. Wright AA, Keating NL, Balboni TA, et al. Place of death: correlations with quality of life of patients with cancer and predictors of bereaved caregivers’ mental health. J Clin Oncol.
123. Barnato AE, Chang CC, Farrell MH, et al. Is survival better at hospitals with higher “end-of-life” treatment intensity? Med Care.
124. Barnato AE, Berhane Z, Weissfeld LA, et al. Racial variation in end-of-life intensive care use: a race or hospital effect? Health Serv Res.
125. Hanchate A, Kronman AC
, Young-Xu Y, et al. Racial and ethnic differences in end-of-life costs: why do minorities cost more than whites? Arch Intern Med.
126. Buckley TA, Joynt GM. Limitation of life support in the critically ill: the Hong Kong perspective. Ann Acad Med Singapore.
127. The Belgian act on euthanasia of May, 28th 2002. Eur J Health Law. 2003;10:329–335.
128. Nys H. A presentation of the Belgian act on euthanasia against the background of Dutch euthanasia law. Eur J Health Law.
129. Damas F, Damas P, Lamy M. Euthanasia: a law in Belgium? Intensive Care Med.
130. Lemaire FJ. A law for end of life care in France? Intensive Care Med.
131. Luce JM. Three patients who asked that life support be withheld or withdrawn in the surgical intensive care unit. Crit Care Med.
132. Meier DE, Morrison RS. Autonomy reconsidered. N Engl J Med.
133. Alpers A, Lo B. Does it make clinical sense to equate terminally ill patients who require life-sustaining interventions with those who do not? JAMA.
134. Whitney SN, McGuire AL, McCullough LB. A typology of shared decision making, informed consent, and simple consent. Ann Intern Med.
135. Kirchhoff KT, Anumandla PR, Foth KT, et al. Documentation on withdrawal of life support in adult patients in the intensive care unit. Am J Crit Care.
136. Luce JM. Making decisions about the forgoing of life-sustaining therapy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.
137. Luce JM, Lemaire F. Two transatlantic viewpoints on an ethical quandary. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.
138. Heyland DK, Cook DJ, Rocker GM, et al. Decision-making in the ICU: perspectives of the substitute decision-maker. Intensive Care Med.
139. Upadya A, Muralidharan V, Thorevska N, et al. Patient, physician, and family member understanding of living wills. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.
140. Rabow MW, Hauser JM, Adams J. Supporting family caregivers at the end of life: “they don’t know what they don’t know.” JAMA.
141. Hines SC, Glover JJ, Babrow AS, et al. Improving advance care planning by accommodating family preferences. J Palliat Med.
142. Terry PB, Vettese M, Song J, et al. End-of-life decision making: when patients and surrogates disagree. J Clin Ethics.
143. Emanuel EJ, Emanuel LL, Orentlicher D. Advance directives. JAMA.
144. Prendergast TJ. Advance care planning: pitfalls, progress, promise. Crit Care Med. 2001;29:N34–N399.
145. Danis M, Southerland LI, Garrett JM, et al. A prospective study of advance directives for life-sustaining care. N Engl J Med.
146. Goodman MD, Tarnoff M, Slotman GJ. Effect of advance directives on the management of elderly critically ill patients. Crit Care Med.
147. Sulmasy DP, Terry PB, Weisman CS, et al. The accuracy of substituted judgments in patients with terminal diagnoses. Ann Intern Med.
148. Knaus WA, Zimmerman JE, Wagner DP, et al. APACHE-acute physiology and chronic health evaluation: a physiologically based classification system. Crit Care Med.
149. Knaus WA, Draper EA, Wagner DP, Zimmerman JE. APACHE II: a severity of disease classification system. Crit Care Med.
150. Le Gall JR, Lemeshow S, Saulnier F. A new Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) based on a European/North American multicenter study. JAMA. 1993;270:2957–2963.
151. Le Gall JR, Klar J, Lemeshow S, et al. The Logistic Organ Dysfunction system. A new way to assess organ dysfunction in the intensive care unit. ICU Scoring Group. JAMA. 1996;276:802–810.
152. Timsit JF, Fosse JP, Troche G, et al. Accuracy of a composite score using daily SAPS II and LOD scores for predicting hospital mortality in ICU patients hospitalized for more than 72 h. Intensive Care Med.
153. Timsit JF, Fosse JP, Toche G, et al. Calibration and discrimination by daily Logistic Organ Dysfunction scoring comparatively with daily Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scoring for predicting hospital mortality in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 2002;20:2003–2013.
154. Sculier JP, Paesmans M, Markiewicz E, Berghmans T. Scoring systems in cancer patients admitted for an acute complication in a medical intensive care unit. Crit Care Med.
155. Schneiderman LJ, Spragg RG. Ethical decisions in discontinuing mechanical ventilation. N Engl J Med.
156. Schneiderman LJ, Jecker NS, Jonsen AR. Medical futility: its meaning and ethical implications. Ann Intern Med.
157. Schneiderman LJ, Jecker NS, Jonsen AR. Medical futility: response to critiques. Ann Intern Med.
158. Prendergast TJ. Futility and the common cold. How requests for antibiotics can illuminate care at the end of life. Chest.
159. Schneiderman LJ, Jecker NS, Jonsen AR. Abuse of futility. Arch Intern Med.
160. Schneiderman LJ, Faber-Langendoen K, Jecker NS. Beyond futility to an ethic of care. Am J Med.
161. Rocker G, Cook D, Sjokvist P, et al. Clinician predictions of intensive care unit mortality. Crit Care Med.
162. Curtis JR, Patrick DL, Shannon SE, et al. The family conference as a focus to improve communication about end-of-life care in the intensive care unit: opportunities for improvement. Crit Care Med. 2001;29:N26–N33.
163. Uhlmann RF, Pearlman RA. Perceived quality of life and preferences for life-sustaining treatment in older adults. Arch Intern Med.
164. Kaplan SH, Greenfield S, Gandek B, et al. Characteristics of physicians with participatory decision-making styles. Ann Intern Med.
165. Luce JM, Breeling JL. Critical care practices of chest physicians. Chest.
166. Kelly WF, Eliasson AH, Stocker DJ, Hnatiuk OW. Do specialists differ on do-not-resuscitate decisions? Chest.
167. Kollef MH. Private attending physician status and the withdrawal of life-sustaining interventions in a medical intensive care unit population. Crit Care Med.
168. Azoulay E, Timsit JF, Sprung CL, et al. Prevalence and factors of intensive care unit conflicts: the conflicus study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.
169. Poncet MC, Toullic P, Papazian L, et al. Burnout syndrome in critical care nursing staff. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.
170. Christakis NA, Asch DA. Biases in how physicians choose to withdraw life support. Lancet.
171. Asch DA, Christakis NA. Why do physicians prefer to withdraw some forms of life support over others? Intrinsic attributes of life-sustaining treatments are associated with physicians’ preferences. Med Care.
172. Chelluri L, Im KA, Belle SH, et al. Long-term mortality and quality of life after prolonged mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med.
173. Herridge MS, Cheung AM, Tansey CM, et al. One-year outcomes in survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med.
174. Im K, Belle SH, Schulz R, et al. Prevalence and outcomes of caregiving after prolonged mechanical ventilation in the ICU. Chest.
175. Asch DA, Faber-Langendoen K, Shea JA, Christakis NA. The sequence of withdrawing life-sustaining treatment from patients. Am J Med.
176. Cook DJ, Guyatt G, Rocker G, et al. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation directives on admission to intensive-care unit: an international observational study. Lancet.
177. Walter SD, Cook DJ, Guyatt GH, et al. Confidence in life-support decisions in the intensive care unit: a survey of healthcare workers. Canadian Critical Care Trials Group. Crit Care Med.
178. Azoulay E, Pochard F, Garrouste-Orgeas M, et al. Decisions to forgo life-sustaining therapy in ICU patients independently predict hospital death. Intensive Care Med.
179. Shepardson LB, Youngner SJ, Speroff T, Rosenthal GE. Increased risk of death in patients with do-not-resuscitate orders. Med Care.
180. Sulmasy DP. Do patients die because they have DNR orders, or do they have DNR orders because they are going to die? Med Care.
181. White DB, Braddock CH 3rd, Bereknyei S, Curtis JR. Toward shared decision making at the end of life in intensive care units: opportunities for improvement. Arch Intern Med.
182. Luce JM. The art of negotiating. Crit Care Med.
183. Rivera S, Kim D, Garone S, et al. Motivating factors in futile clinical interventions. Chest.
184. Bowman KW. Communication, negotiation, and mediation: dealing with conflict in end-of-life decisions. J Palliat Care. 2000;16:S17–S23.
185. Prendergast TJ. Resolving conflicts surrounding end-of-life care. New Horiz.
186. Miller DK, Coe RM, Hyers TM. Achieving consensus on withdrawing or withholding care for critically ill patients. J Gen Intern Med.
187. Schneiderman LJ, Gilmer T, Teetzel HD, et al. Effect of ethics consultations on nonbeneficial life-sustaining treatments in the intensive care setting: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA.
188. Westphal DM, McKee SA. End-of-life decision making in the intensive care unit: physician and nurse perspectives. Am J Med Qual.
189. Sprung CL, Carmel S, Sjokvist P, et al. Attitudes of European physicians, nurses, patients, and families regarding end-of-life decisions: the ETHICATT study. Intensive Care Med.
190. White DB, Curtis JR, Lo B, Luce JM. Decisions to limit life-sustaining treatment for critically ill patients who lack both decision-making capacity and surrogate decision-makers. Crit Care Med.
191. Mularski RA, Bascom P, Osborne ML. Educational agendas for interdisciplinary end-of-life curricula. Crit Care Med. 2001;29:N16–N23.
192. Clarke EB, Curtis JR, Luce JM, et al. Quality indicators for end-of-life care in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med.
193. Johnson N, Cook D, Giacomini M, Willms D. Towards a “good” death: end-of-life narratives constructed in an intensive care unit. Cult Med Psychiatry.
194. Fins JJ, Solomon MZ. Communication in intensive care settings: the challenge of futility disputes. Crit Care Med. 2001;29:N10–N15.
195. Lilly CM, Sonna LA, Haley KJ, Massaro AF. Intensive communication: four-year follow-up from a clinical practice study. Crit Care Med. 2003;31:S394–S399.
196. Seymour JE. Negotiating natural death in intensive care. Soc Sci Med.
197. Cook DJ, Giacomini M, Johnson N, Willms D. Life support in the intensive care unit: a qualitative investigation of technological purposes. Canadian Critical Care Trials Group. CMAJ.
198. Curtis JR, Patrick DL, Engelberg RA, et al. A measure of the quality of dying and death. Initial validation using after-death interviews with family members. J Pain Symptom Manage.
199. Fried TR, Bradley EH, Towle VR, Allore H. Understanding the treatment preferences of seriously ill patients. N Engl J Med.
200. Curtis JR, Engelberg RA, Wenrich MD, et al. Missed opportunities during family conferences about end-of-life care in the intensive care unit. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.
201. Danis M, Federman D, Fins JJ, et al. Incorporating palliative care into critical care education: principles, challenges, and opportunities. Crit Care Med.
202. DeVita MA, Arnold RM, Barnard D. Teaching palliative care to critical care medicine trainees. Crit Care Med.
203. Nyman DJ, Sprung CL. End-of-life decision making in the intensive care unit. Intensive Care Med.
204. Nelson JE, Danis M. End-of-life care in the intensive care unit: where are we now? Crit Care Med. 2001;29:N2–N9.
205. Curtis JR, Engelberg RA, Wenrich MD, et al. Studying communication about end-of-life care during the ICU family conference: development of a framework. J Crit Care.
206. Gries CJ, Curtis JR, Wall RJ, Engelberg RA. Family member satisfaction with end-of-life decision making in the ICU. Chest.
207. Selph RB, Shiang J, Engelberg R, et al. Empathy and life support decisions in intensive care units. J Gen Intern Med.
208. Keenan SP, Mawdsley C, Plotkin D, et al. Withdrawal of life support: how the family feels, and why. J Palliat Care. 2000;16:S40–S44.
209. Steinhauser KE, Christakis NA, Clipp EC
, et al. Factors considered important at the end of life by patients, family, physicians, and other care providers. JAMA.
210. Robinson SM, Mackenzie-Ross S, Campbell Hewson GL, et al. Psychological effect of witnessed resuscitation on bereaved relatives. Lancet.
211. McDonagh JR, Elliott TB, Engelberg RA, et al. Family satisfaction with family conferences about end-of-life care in the intensive care unit: increased proportion of family speech is associated with increased satisfaction. Crit Care Med.
212. Fridh I, Forsberg A, Bergbom I. Family presence and environmental factors at the time of a patient’s death in an ICU. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand.
213. Lo B, Ruston D, Kates LW, et al. Discussing religious and spiritual issues at the end of life: a practical guide for physicians. JAMA.
214. Wall RJ, Engelberg RA, Gries CJ, et al. Spiritual care of families in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med.
215. Lautrette A, Darmon M, Megarbane B, et al. A communication strategy and brochure for relatives of patients dying in the ICU. N Engl J Med.
216. Asch DA. The role of critical care nurses in euthanasia and assisted suicide. N Engl J Med.
217. Ferrand E, Lemaire F, Regnier B, et al. Discrepancies between perceptions by physicians and nursing staff of intensive care unit end-of-life decisions. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.
218. Puntillo KA, Benner P, Drought T, et al. End-of-life issues in intensive care units: a national random survey of nurses’ knowledge and beliefs. Am J Crit Care.
219. Kirchhoff KT, Beckstrand RL. Critical care nurses’ perceptions of obstacles and helpful behaviors in providing end-of-life care to dying patients. Am J Crit Care.
220. Stevens L, Cook D, Guyatt G, et al. Education, ethics, and end-of-life decisions in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med.
221. Moreau D, Goldgran-Toledano D, Alberti C, et al. Junior versus senior physicians for informing families of intensive care unit patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003;4:4.
222. Machare Delgado E, Callahan A, Paganelli G, et al. Multidisciplinary family meetings in the ICU facilitate end-of-life decision making. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2009;26:295–302.
223. Bradley CT, Webb TP, Schmitz CC, et al. Structured teaching versus experiential learning of palliative care for surgical residents. Am J Surg.
224. Cheung W, Aggarwal G, Fugaccia E, et al. Palliative care teams in the intensive care unit: a randomised, controlled, feasibility study. Crit Care Resusc.
225. Kaufer M, Murphy P, Barker K, Mosenthal A. Family satisfaction following the death of a loved one in an inner city MICU. Am J Hosp Palliat Care.
226. Mosenthal AC
, Murphy PA, Barker LK, et al. Changing the culture around end-of-life care in the trauma intensive care unit. J Trauma.
227. Kuschner WG, Gruenewald DA, Clum N, et al. Implementation of ICU palliative care guidelines and procedures: a quality improvement initiative following an investigation of alleged euthanasia. Chest.
228. Gebara J, Tashjian H. End-of-life practices at a Lebanese hospital: courage or knowledge? J Transcult Nurs.
229. Curtis JR, Patrick DL, Caldwell ES, Collier AC
. Why don’t patients and physicians talk about end-of-life care? Barriers to communication for patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and their primary care clinicians. Arch Intern Med.
230. Hanson LC, Tulsky JA, Danis M. Can clinical interventions change care at the end of life? Ann Intern Med.
231. Treece PD, Engelberg RA, Crowley L, et al. Evaluation of a standardized order form for the withdrawal of life support in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med.
232. Arnold RM, Kellum J. Moral justifications for surrogate decision making in the intensive care unit: implications and limitations. Crit Care Med. 2003;31:S347–S353.
233. Goold SD, Williams B, Arnold RM. Conflicts regarding decisions to limit treatment: a differential diagnosis. JAMA.
234. Hammes BJ, Rooney BL. Death and end-of-life planning in one midwestern community. Arch Intern Med.
235. Nelson JE, Angus DC, Weissfeld LA, et al. End-of-life care for the critically ill: a national intensive care unit survey. Crit Care Med.
236. Shanawani H, Wenrich MD, Tonelli MR, Curtis JR. Meeting physicians’ responsibilities in providing end-of-life care. Chest.
237. Walling AM, Asch SM, Lorenz KA, et al. The quality of care provided to hospitalized patients at the end of life. Arch Intern Med.
238. White DB, Engelberg RA, Wenrich MD, et al. Prognostication during physician-family discussions about limiting life support in intensive care units. Crit Care Med.
239. Mohan D, Alexander SC, Garrigues SK, et al. Communication practices in physician decision-making for an unstable critically ill patient with end-stage cancer. J Palliat Med.
240. White DB, Malvar G, Karr J, et al. Expanding the paradigm of the physician’s role in surrogate decision-making: an empirically derived framework. Crit Care Med.
241. Thornton JD, Pham K, Engelberg RA, et al. Families with limited English proficiency receive less information and support in interpreted intensive care unit family conferences. Crit Care Med.
242. Campbell ML, Guzman JA. A proactive approach to improve end-of-life care in a medical intensive care unit for patients with terminal dementia. Crit Care Med.
243. Campbell ML, Guzman JA. Impact of a proactive approach to improve end-of-life care in a medical ICU. Chest.