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  1. Fractional shortening (%) =


  2. Velocity of circumferential fiber shortening (circ/sec) =

    fractional shortening × ejection time

  3. Fractional area change (%) =


  4. Ejection fraction (%) =


  5. Volume by Simpson's method of disks where the LV is modeled as a series of stacked cylindrical disks capped by an elliptical disk apex

    Volumecylindrical disks = (π × D1/2) × D2/2) × H

    where D1 and D2 are orthogonal diameters of the cylinder, and H is the height of the cylinder


    Volumeelliptical disk = Ah/2 + a2/b2 × π × h3/6

    where A is the area of the ellipsoid segment, h is the height of the ellipsoid segment, and a and b are radii of the total ellipsoid.

  6. Volume by the area-length method where the LV is modeled as acylinder–hemi-ellipsoid

    Volume = (5 × area × major-axis length)/6

    where the area is planimetered by using a short-axis view at the level of the mitral valve

  7. Volume by the diameter-length method where the LV is modeled as a prolate-ellipsoid

    Volume = (π × D1 × D2 × major-axis length)/6

    where D1 and D2 are orthogonal short-axis diameters

  8. Stroke volume (ml) =

    (end-diastolic volume – end-systolic volume)

  9. Cardiac output (liters/min) = (stroke volume × heart rate)

  10. Cardiac index (liters/min/m2) =


  11. Meriodinal wall stress


    where P represents LV peak pressure, Ac is LV cavity area, and Am represents LV myocardial area (area of the muscle in the short-axis view)

  12. Circumferential wall stress


    where L represents the LV long-axis length

  13. Strain (%) =


    where length0 is the initial length

  14. Strain rate (s–1) =


  15. LV mass (g) =

    (1.04 × [(LVID + PWT + IVST)3 – LVID3]) × 0.8 + 0.6

  16. dP/dt (mm Hg/s) =

    32 × 1000/dt

    where dt (in msec) is the time for velocity to rise from 1 m/s to 3 m/s on a continuous wave Doppler tracing of mitral regurgitation

  17. Myocardial performance index =


  1. Fractional area change (%) =


  2. Ejection fraction (%) =


    using Simpson's method of disks

  3. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (mm) From the transgastric RV inflow view and using M-mode, the movement of the leading edge of the lateral tricuspid annulus attachment is tracked during systole, and its excursion measured

  4. Myocardial performance index =


  5. dP/dt (mm Hg/s) =

    12 × 1000/dt

    where dt (in msec) is the time for velocity to rise from 1 m/s to 2 m/s on a continuous wave Doppler tracing of tricuspid regurgitation

  1. Doppler shift


    Δf = Difference between the transmitted frequency (ft) and received frequency

    v = Velocity of red blood cells

    θ = Angle between the Doppler beam and the direction of blood flow

    c = Speed of ultrasound in blood (1540m/sec)

  2. Stroke volume (ml) =

    Stroke Distance × Cross Sectional Area (CSA)


    Stroke Distance = LVOT or RVOT Velocity Time ...

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