CW, continuous-wave Doppler; LA, left atrium; EROA, effective regurgitant orifice area; LV, left ventricle; PW, pulsed-wave Doppler; RF, regurgitant fraction; R Vol, regurgitant volume; VC, vena contracta.
aUnless there were other reasons for LA or LV dilation. Normal 2D measurements: LV minor axis ≤2.8 cm/m2, LV end-diastolic volume ≤82 mL/m2, maximal LA anteroposterior diameter ≤2 cm/m2, maximal LA volume ≤36 mL/m2.
bException: acute mitral regurgitation.
cAt a Nyquist limit of 50-60 cm/s.
dUsually above 50 years of age or in conditions of impaired relaxation, in the absence of mitral stenosis or other causes of elevated LA pressure.
eUnless other reasons for systolic blunting (eg, atrial fibrillation, elevated left atrial pressure).
fPulmonary venous systolic flow reversal is specific but not sensitive for severe MR.
gQuantitative parameters can help sub-classify the moderate regurgitation group into mild-to-moderate and moderate-to-severe.