Skip to Main Content

We have a new app!

Take the Access library with you wherever you go—easy access to books, videos, images, podcasts, personalized features, and more.

Download the Access App here: iOS and Android



  • image Induction of anesthesia in patients receiving long-term levodopa therapy may result in either marked hypotension or hypertension.

  • image In patients with multiple sclerosis, increases in body temperature cause exacerbation of symptoms.

  • image The major risk of anesthesia in patients with autonomic dysfunction is severe hypotension, compromising cerebral and coronary blood flow.

  • image Autonomic hyperreflexia should be expected in patients with spinal cord lesions above T6 and can be precipitated by surgical manipulations.

  • image The most important interaction between anesthetic agents and tricyclic antidepressants is an exaggerated response to both indirect-acting vasopressors and sympathetic stimulation.

Patients with vascular and nonvascular neurological diseases or psychiatric disorders are frequently encountered by anesthesia providers. Anesthesiologists must have a basic understanding of the major neurological and psychiatric disorders and their drug therapy. Failure to recognize potential adverse anesthetic interactions may result in avoidable perioperative morbidity.


Preoperative Considerations

Patients with diagnosed cerebrovascular disease typically have a history of transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or stroke. Patients with TIAs undergoing surgery for other indications have an increased risk of perioperative stroke. Asymptomatic carotid bruits occur in up to 4% of patients older than age 40 years, but they do not necessarily indicate significant carotid artery obstruction. Fewer than 10% of patients with asymptomatic bruits have hemodynamically significant carotid artery lesions. An asymptomatic carotid bruit may not increase the risk of stroke following surgery, but it increases the likelihood of coexisting coronary artery disease. Moreover, the absence of a bruit does not exclude significant carotid obstruction.

The risk of perioperative stroke increases with patient age and varies with the type of surgery. Rates of stroke after general anesthesia and surgery range from 0.08% to 0.4%. Even in patients with known cerebrovascular disease, the risk is only 0.4% to 3.3%. Although the overall risk of stroke associated with surgery is low, it is greatest in those undergoing open heart procedures for valvular disease, coronary artery disease with ascending aortic atherosclerosis, diseases of the thoracic aorta, and those undergoing cerebrovascular surgery. Stroke following open heart surgery is usually attributed to embolism of air, clots, or atheromatous debris. In one study, 6% of patients experienced an adverse neurological outcome following cardiac surgery. Stroke following thoracic aortic surgery may be due to emboli or ischemia secondary to prolonged circulatory arrest or a clamp placed close to the origin of the carotid artery.

The pathophysiology of postoperative strokes following noncardiovascular surgery is less clear but may involve sustained hypotension or hypertension. Hypotension with cerebral hypoperfusion can result in so-called watershed zone infarctions or thrombosis of cerebral arteries, whereas hypertension can result in intracerebral hemorrhage (hemorrhagic stroke). Sustained hypertension can disrupt the blood–brain barrier and promote cerebral edema. Perioperative atrial fibrillation can likewise lead to atrial clot formation and cerebral embolism. The period of time during which nonemergency anesthesia and surgery should best ...

Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.