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Chapter 22. Spinal Anesthesia

Who was the first to describe spinal anesthesia?

A. William Halsted

B. James Corning

C. Carl Koller

D. Augustus Bier

B is correct. James Leonard Corning, a neurologist in New York, in 1885 described the use of cocaine for spinal anesthesia.

Intraoperative nausea and vomiting is reduced by adding what to the spinal solution?

A. Morphine

B. Clonidine

C. Neostigmine

D. Fentanyl

D is correct. Intrathecal fentanyl reduces intraoperative nausea and vomiting by improving block quality, decreasing supplemental opioids, or decreasing hypotension.

An increased incidence of hypotension after spinal anesthesia is seen when:

A. A combined spinal-epidural is used

B. Prophylactic glycopyrrolate is administered

C. Prophylactic ondansetron is administered

D. An intensive motor blockade is avoided

B is correct. Prophylactic glycopyrrolate can increase hypotension after spinal anesthesia.

Which statement is false regarding hearing loss after spinal anesthesia?

A. It is due to loss of outer hair cell function.

B. It disappears spontaneously.

C. It occurs irrespective of the technique used.

D. It occurs more often in the obstetric population.

D is correct. It’s false that hearing impairment occurs more often in the obstetric population; it is less common.

Postoperative urinary retention following spinal anesthesia is due to all except:

A. Use of opioids

B. Use of vasopressors

C. Use of > 1 L fluids

D. Use of anticholinergic drugs

B is correct. The use of vasopressors is not related with urinary retention.

Shivering following spinal anesthesia:

A. Does not occur as fast (within 30 minutes) as with epidural anesthesia

B. Is less intense compared to epidural anesthesia


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