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Select the best answer for the following questions (single response).

1. Which of the following views is best suited to support the diagnosis of persistent left superior vena cava?

a. Midesophageal four-chamber view

b. Midesophageal bicaval view

c. Modified bicaval view (100 to 120 degrees)

d. Midesophageal two-chamber view


2. What does the term situs solitus imply with regard to atrial arrangement?

a. Bilateral right atria

b. Normal arrangement of both atria

c. Right atrium on left and left atrium on right

d. Bilateral left atria


3. Which statement is true with regard to device closure of an ASD?

a. The ASD has to be an ASD primum type of defect.

b. The ASD has to be an ASD secundum type of defect.

c. The rims identified in the ME 4-CH view are the AV rim and the posterior rim.

d. b and c


4. The prevalence of probe patent PFO in autopsies is:

a. 10% to 15%

b. 5% to 10%

c. 35% to 40%

d. 25% to 30%


5. All of the following regarding patent foramen ovale are true except:

a. Paradoxical air embolism

b. Association with cleft mitral valve

c. Migraine headache

d. Decompression sickness with deep-sea divers


6. Which of the following is associated with a cleft mitral valve?

a. Ostium secundum ASD

b. Ostium primum ASD

c. Sinus venosus ASD

d. Anomalous pulmonary venous connection


7. Which is the most common congenital anomaly recognized at birth?

a. VSD


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