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Select the one best answer for each of the following questions.

1. In the upper esophageal ascending aortic views, which of the following best describes the orientation of the ascending aorta?

a. Anterior to the main pulmonary artery

b. Posterior to the left pulmonary artery

c. Anterior to the right pulmonary artery

d. Posterior to the right pulmonary artery


2. Which of the following best describes the normal aortic narrowing at the point of attachment of the remnant of the fetal ductus arteriosus?

a. Coarct

b. Isthmus

c. Stenosis

d. Stricture


3. Which of the following best describes the curvature and direction of the aortic arch?

a. Cranial, posterior, and leftward

b. Cranial, anterior, and leftward

c. Cranial, posterior, and rightward

d. Cranial, anterior, and rightward


4. The artery of Adamkiewicz most commonly originates from which of the following thoracic levels?

a. T2 to T8

b. T4 to T9

c. T6 to T10

d. T9 to T12


5. Which of the following is most common at the level of the aortic isthmus?

a. Dissection

b. Intramural hematoma

c. Transection

d. Aneurysm


6. Which of the following structures will most likely be visualized by leftward rotation of the TEE probe at the level of the left atrium?

a. Descending thoracic aorta

b. Coronary sinus

c. Transverse sinus

d. Subclavian artery


7. The anatomy of the ascending aorta is best evaluated using which of the following imaging modalities?

a. Tissue Doppler with high frame rates


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