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Select the one best answer for each of the following questions.

1. Which of the following statements concerning the insertion of the anterior leaflet to the mitral annulus is true?

a. It inserts into the posterior annulus.

b. It inserts into one-third of the annulus.

c. It inserts into two-thirds of the annulus.

d. It inserts into half of the annulus.

e. Its insertion covers the entire annulus.


2. Concerning the papillary muscles of the mitral valve, which of the following statements is true?

a. The anterior papillary muscle is much larger than the posterior papillary muscle.

b. The chordae of the anterior leaflet are attached to the anterior papillary muscle, whereas those of the posterior leaflet are attached to the posterior papillary muscle.

c. Their morphology may vary among individuals.

d. The anterior papillary muscle arises from the septum.

e. They are tendinous structures with little or no blood supply.


3. Concerning the mitral leaflets, all the following statements are true except:

a. The anterior leaflet is much larger than the posterior leaflet.

b. Each leaflet has its own papillary muscle.

c. The anterior leaflet has a small annular attachment when compared with that of the posterior leaflet.

d. The anterior leaflet is attached to the annulus between the two fibrous trigones of the heart.


4. Echocardiographic findings in patients with chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation include:

a. Type I

b. Type II

c. Type III

d. Type I and III

e. Type I, II, and III


5. Prolapse of the posterior leaflet can be due to all of the following except:

a. Ruptured chordae

b. Elongated chordae

c. Endocarditis

d. Dilated left ventricle

e. Myocardial infarction with ruptured papillary muscle


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