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Select the one best answer for each item.

1. With regard to the mitral valve leaflets, which of the following statements is true?

a. The anterior mitral leaflet is divided into three scallops by clefts.

b. The posterior leaflet occupies approximately two-thirds of the mitral annulus.

c. The posterior leaflet is associated with the aortic valve.

d. The commissures extend all the way to the mitral annulus.


2. Which of the following statements related to the function of the mitral valve is false?

a. It keeps the left atrial pressure low in order to prevent pulmonary hypertension.

b. It allows unobstructed flow to the left ventricular outflow tract during diastole.

c. It prevents the backflow of blood to the left atrium during systole.

d. It offers little resistance to ventricular filling during diastole.


3. Which of the following structures is not included in the mitral valvar complex?

a. Mitral valve leaflets

b. Chordae tendineae

c. Left atrial appendage

d. Mitral valvar annulus

e. Aortomitral fibrous continuity


4. Papillary muscle dysfunction:

a. Is more commonly limited to the anterolateral papillary muscle

b. Often leads to muscle rupture after an ischemic event

c. Is seen more commonly in the posteromedial papillary muscle

d. Is seldom a cause of mitral regurgitation


5. Which of the following views does not allow complete visualization of the mitral valve?

a. Midesophageal four chamber

b. Midesophageal mitral commissural

c. Midesophageal aortic valve short axis

d. Transgastric two chamber

e. Deep transgastric long axis


6. Which combination of mitral valve segments is demonstrated by the midesophageal four-chamber view (20 to 30 degrees)?

a. A1 and P1

b. P3 and P4


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