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CHAPTER 7: ASSESSMENT OF LEFT VENTRICULAR SYSTOLIC FUNCTION

Select the one best answer for each item.

1. Which of the following describes the diastolic filling phase of the LV pressure-volume loop?

a. Volume remains constant, pressure falls.

b. Volume remains constant, pressure rises.

c. Volume and pressure remain constant.

d. Volume rises, pressure falls.

e. Volume and pressure rise.

e.

2. Which of the following describes the isovolumic contraction phase of the LV pressure-volume loop?

a. Volume remains constant, pressure falls.

b. Volume remains constant, pressure rises.

c. Volume and pressure remain constant.

d. Volume rises, pressure falls.

e. Volume and pressure rise.

b.

3. Which of the following is the most load-independent index of ventricular contractility?

a. Fractional area change

b. Ejection fraction

c. Peak dP/dt

d. End-systolic elastance

e. Fractional shortening

d.

4. For each of the following conditions, indicate whether LV preload is:

  1. Increased

  2. Decreased

  3. Unchanged

a. Mitral regurgitation

b. Ventricular septal defect

c. Aortic regurgitation

d. Aortic stenosis

e. Acute blood loss

a. A; b. A; c. A; d. C; e. B.

5. For each of the following conditions, indicate whether LV afterload is:

  1. Increased

  2. Decreased

  3. Unchanged

a. Mitral regurgitation

b. Peri-infarction ventricular septal defect

c. Aortic stenosis

d. Systemic hypertension

a. B; b. B; c. A; d. A.

6. Relative to the preinduction resting state, which of the following best describes the typical change in LV loading conditions after the induction of general anesthesia before cardiac surgery?

a. Afterload increased, preload increased

b. Afterload increased, preload decreased

c. Afterload decreased, preload increased

d. Afterload decreased, preload decreased

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