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CHAPTER 6: ANATOMICAL VARIANTS AND ULTRASOUND ARTIFACTS

Select the one best answer for each question.

1. Identify the structure:

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a. Chiari network

b. Eustachian valve

c. Pacing wire

d. Venous cannula

a. Chiari network. This is a sinus venosus–derived structure that is characterized by a fenestrated, undulating appearance.

2. Identify the artifact:

Image not available.

a. Reverberation

b. Mirror image

c. Side lobe

d. Near-field clutter

b. Mirror image. This is a mirror image of an aorta with an intra-aortic balloon pump in it. Note that the false image of the balloon pump (arrow) is distant to the real image.

3. Identify the structure at the arrow:

Image not available.

a. Cor triatriatum

b. Myxoma

c. Mitral annular calcification

d. Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum

b. This is a myxoma. The patient also has lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum, but the arrow is pointing to the myxoma.

4. Identify the variant or pathology:

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a. Atrial septal defect

b. Crista terminalis

c. Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum

d. Eustachian valve

a. This is an atrial septal defect, not a normal anatomical variant.

5. What is the artifact seen?

Image not available.

a. Near-field clutter

b. Mirror image

c. Acoustic shadow

d. Reverberation

c. This is a large acoustic shadow from the strut of a mechanical valve in the mitral position, which makes evaluation of distal structures difficult.

6. Identify the structure at the arrow:

Image not available.

a. Moderator band

b. Papillary muscle

c. Left ventricular band

d. Left ventricular thrombus

d. This is a left ventricular (LV) thrombus. It is not in the correct location for ...

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