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INTRODUCTION

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Structure Measurement View Dimension (cm)*
Chambers Left atrium Diameter (A) ME 4 CH or ME 2 CH 3.0–4.0 ♂
2.7–3.8 ♀
Right atrium Minor axis (B) ME 4 CH 1.9±0.3
Left ventricle§ Wall thickness (septal) (C) TGmidSAX 0.6–0.9
Wall thickness inferolateral(D) TGmidSAX 0.6–.0
Diameter (E) ME 2 CH or TG 2 CH 4.2–5.84 ♂
3.78–5.22 ♀
Right ventricle Basal diameter (F) ME 4 CH 2.5–4.1
Mid-diameter (G) ME 4 CH 1.9–3.5
Length (H) ME 4 CH 5.9–8.3
Wall thickness (I) ME 4 CH or RV inflow-outflow 0.1–0.5
Tracts/Vessels Right ventricular outflow RVOT diameter (below PV) (J) ME AV SAX or RV inflow-outflow 2.1–3.5
RVOT diameter (above PV) (K) ME AV SAX or RV inflow-outflow 1.7–3.7
Aortic root Sinus of Valsalva (L) ME AV LAX 3.4±0.3 ♂
3.0±0.3 ♀
Pulmonary artery Diameter (M) RV inflow-outflow 2.23–3.32
Inferior vena cava# Diameter ME 4 CH (modified) 1.5–2.5

*All dimensions are adapted from the ASE guidelines1 and include the normal ranges for adult men and women.

Left atrium (LA): The LA diameter cannot be reliably measured with TEE. Multiple views are recommended to obtain the diameter.

Right atrium (RA): The RA should be measured from its lateral border to the interatrial septum. The TEE probe should be rotated slightly toward the right from the ME 4 CH view to obtain optimal views of the RA.

§Left ventricle (LV): The diameter of the LV should be measured at end diastole in the two-chamber views to avoid foreshortening.

Aortic root: Normal dimensions of the aortic root, LV outflow tract, and aortic annulus are highly variable and dependent on body size. Standardized nomograms have been published elsewhere.2 These values represent ranges in aortic root diameter measured at the level of the sinus of Valsalva in individuals above 40 years.

Pulmonary artery (PA): There are no standardized TEE views for measuring the PA diameter. These values are adapted from the transthoracic parasternal short-axis view.

#Inferior vena cava (IVC): There are no standardized TEE views for measuring the IVC diameter. The IVC may be measured 1 to 2 cm from its junction from the RA by rotating the TEE probe toward the right and withdrawing slightly from the ME 4 CH view and following the IVC into the hepatic parenchyma. For accuracy, this measurement should be made perpendicular to the IVC long axis.

REFERENCES

1. +
Lang RM, Badano LP, Mor-Avi V,  et al. Recommendations for cardiac chamber quantification by echocardiography in adults: an update from the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2015;28(1):1–39.  [PubMed: 25559473]
2. +
Truong QA, Massaro JM, Rogers IS,  et al. Reference values for ...

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