Skip to Main Content

We have a new app!

Take the Access library with you wherever you go—easy access to books, videos, images, podcasts, personalized features, and more.

Download the Access App here: iOS and Android


  1. Fractional shortening(%)=(end-diastolic diameter)(end-systolic diameter)(end-diastolic diameter)×100

  2. Velocity of circumferential fiber shortening (circ/s) = fractional shortening ×1/ ejection time

  3. Fractional area change(%)=(end-diastolic area)(end-systolic area)(end-diastolic area)×100

  4. Fractional area change corrected for afterload

    (FAC afterload corrected(FACac)=FAC×log([MAP-RAP]/CI)×100%)

  5. Ejection fraction(%)=(end-diastolic volume)(end-systolic volume)(end-diastolic volume)×100

  6. Volume by Simpson method of disks where the LV is modeled as a series of stacked cylindrical disks capped by an elliptical disk apex

    Volumecylindrical disks=(π×D12)×D22)×H

    where D1 and D2 are orthogonal diameters of the cylinder, and H is the height of the cylinder


    Volumeelliptical disk=Ah2+a2b2×π×h36

    where A is the area of the ellipsoid segment, h is the height of the ellipsoid segment, and a and b are radii of the total ellipsoid.

  7. Volume by the area-length method where the LV is modeled as a cylinder–hemi-ellipsoid


    where the area is planimetered by using a short-axis view at the level of the mitral valve

  8. Volume by the diameter-length method where the LV is modeled as a prolate-ellipsoid

    Volume=(π×D1×D2×major-axis length)6

    where D1 and D2 are orthogonal short-axis diameters

  9. Stroke volume (ml) = (end-diastolic volume – end-systolic volume)

  10. Cardiac output (liters/min) = (stroke volume × heart rate)

  11. Cardiac index (liters/min/m2) =

    (stroke volume×heart ratebody surface area)

  12. Meriodinal wall stress


    where P represents LV peak pressure, Ac is LV cavity area, and Am represents LV myocardial area (area of the muscle in the short-axis view)

  13. Circumferential wall stress


    where L represents the LV long-axis length

  14. Preload-Adjusted Maximal Power index =

    Integrated Area within Pressure-Area Loop(End-Diastolic Area)3/2

  15. Strain (%) =


    where length0 is the initial length

  16. Strain rate (s−1) =


  17. Strain RateVelocityaVelocitybDistance

  18. LV mass (g) =


Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.