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We would like to express our deepest gratitude to Philips Medical for their assistance, with special appreciation to – Inainee binte Abu Bakar, Lynette Barss, Cheong Yew Keong, Doxie Davis, Nicolaas Delfos, Cellinjit Kaur, William Kok, Nah Lee Tang and Wayne Spittle. And, of course, our families for their support and encouragement.

The anatomic images are courtesy of the Visible Human Server at Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Visible Human Visualization Software (, and Gold Standard Multimedia All figures and illustrations in this book are reproduced with the kind permission from of the Department of Anesthesia and Intensive care of The Chinese University of Hong Kong.

Manoj K. Karmakar, MD, FRCA, DA(UK), FHKCA, FHKAM

Edmund Soh, MD

Victor Chee, MD

Kenneth Sheah, MD

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