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Chapter 114

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A. Cardiovascular/Hemodynamics Equation Normal Ranges
Systemic systolic blood pressure (SBP) 100-140 mm Hg
Systemic diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 60-90 mm Hg
Pulse pressure (PP) SBP – DBP 30-50 mm Hg
Mean arterial pressure (MAP) SBP + (2 × DBP)/3 70-110 mm Hg
Mean pulmonary arterial pressure [PASP + (2 × DBP)]/3 10-20 mm Hg
Central venous pressure (CVP) 2-6 mm Hg
Pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP) 4-10 mm Hg
Systemic vascular resistance (SVR) MAP – RAP/CO × 80 800-1200 dynes s/cm5
Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) MPAP – PAWP/CO × 80 <250 dynes s/cm5
Cardiac output (CO) SV × HR/1000 4.0-8.0 L/min
Cardiac index (CI) CO/BSA 2.5-4.0 L/min/m2
Stroke volume (SV) CO/HR × 1000 60-100 mL/beat
Stroke index (SI) CI/HR × 1000 33-47 mL/m2/beat
Left ventricular stroke work index SVI × (MAP – PAWP) × 0.0136 50-62 g m/m2/beat
Right ventricular stroke work index SVI × (MPAP – RAP) × 0.0136 5-10 g m/m2/beat
Oxygen delivery (DO2) CO × CaO2 × 10 950-1150 mL/min
Oxygen consumption (VO2) CO × (CaO2 – CvO2) × 10 200-250 mL/min
Arterial oxygen content (CaO2) 1.39 × SaO2 × (Hgb) + 0.0031 × PaO2 17-20 mL/dL
Venous oxygen content (CvO2) 1.39 × SvO2 × (Hgb) + 0.0031 × PaO2 12-15 mL/dL
Arterio-venous oxygen content difference (AVO2) CaO2 – CvO2 4-6 mL/dL
Oxygen extraction ratio (O2ER) CaO2 – CvO2/CaO2 × 100 22%-30%
Coronary artery perfusion DBP – PAWP 60-80 mm Hg

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B. Respiratory Equation Normal Ranges
Arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) 80-100 mm Hg
Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) 95%-100%
Arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) 35-45 mm Hg
Alveolar gas equation (PAo2)

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Alveolar-arterial oxygen difference (A-a gradient) PAo2 – PaO2

5-25 mm Hg (at FIo2 = 0.21)

<150 mm Hg (at FIo2 = 1.0)

Minute ventilation Respiratory rate × tidal volume 5-6 L/min
Dead space fraction (VD/VT) Paco2 – Peco2/Paco2 0.2-0.3
Respiratory system static compliance (Cst) VT/Pplat – PEEP 60 mL/cm H2O
Respiratory system dynamic compliance (Cdyn) VT/PIP – PEEP 60 mL/cm H2O
Pulmonary capillary oxygen content (CCo2) (Hgb × 1.39 × 1.0) + (0.0031 × PAo2) 20.7 ml O2/dL
Shunt fraction (QS/QT) (Cco2 – Cao2)/(Cco2 – Cvo2) <5%
Oxygen delivery (Do2) Cao2 × CO × 10 950-1150 mL/min
Oxygen consumption (Vo2)

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