List indications for an artificial airway.
List complications of artificial airways.
Assess patients for extubation and decannulation.
Compare endotracheal intubation and tracheostomy.
Describe the use of a speaking valve.
Although noninvasive ventilation is used increasingly, many mechanically ventilated patients are managed with an endotracheal tube or tracheostomy. Thus, an understanding of airway management is important for those providing mechanical ventilation.
Indications for an Artificial Airway
There are four traditional indications for an artificial airway:
Provide ventilatory support.
Aid in the removal of secretions.
Bypass upper airway obstruction.
Each of these is a relative indication. For example, ventilatory support and airway clearance can be provided noninvasively. Massive aspiration can be minimized by use of an artificial airway, although microaspiration commonly occurs in the presence of a cuffed artificial airway.
Orotracheal Versus Nasotracheal Intubation
Potential advantages of nasotracheal intubation include greater tolerance in the patient who is awake, easier oral hygiene, ease of intubation in the patient with cervical spine injury, and decreased likelihood of self-extubation. However, the disadvantages of nasal intubation outweigh these advantages. Because nasotracheal intubation requires a narrower and longer tube, it increases airway resistance, makes suctioning and bronchoscopy more difficult, and increases the likelihood of sinusitis and otitis media. Accordingly, oral intubation is usually recommended, and the oral route is used in most intubated patients.
A life-threatening complication of airway management is misplacement of the tube (Table 33-1). Although many patients who experience an unplanned extubation do not require reintubation, there is significant morbidity and mortality associated with the need for reintubation. Efforts to avoid unplanned extubation include securing the tube (around-the-head techniques are preferred), physical and chemical restraint when necessary, and vigilance of airway position when the patient or ventilator tubing is moved. The endotracheal tube can be misplaced into the esophagus or mainstem bronchus (usually the right). Although this usually occurs at the time of intubation, it can occur after intubation. The tip of the endotracheal tube can move several centimeters as the result of flexion and extension of the neck—flexion moves the endotracheal tube tip caudad and extension moves it cephalad.
Table 33-1Complications of Artificial Airways ||Download (.pdf) Table 33-1 Complications of Artificial Airways
• Misplacement of the tube
– Unplanned extubation
– Esophageal intubation
– Mainstem intubation
• Airway trauma
• Cuff leaks
• Aspiration and pneumonia
• Loss of upper airway functions
• Increased resistance of breathing
• Decreased ability to clear secretions
As a landmark, the centimeter marking on the tube at the lip or nares should be recorded when proper tube position is determined and this landmark should be checked frequently. For the ...