Skip to Main Content

++

Basic Sciences

++
++
++

What results when alpha-1 receptors are activated?

++
++
++

(A) Presynaptic nerve terminals are stimulated.

++
++

(B) Adenylate cyclase activity is inhibited.

++
++

(C) Negative feedback loop inhibits norepinephrine release.

++
++

(D) Intracellular calcium ion concentration increases.

++
++

D. Rationale: Alpha-1 receptors activate postsynaptic adrenoceptors resulting in increased intracellular calcium. Alpha-2 receptors are located presynaptically. Adenylate cyclase activity is inhibited when alpha-2 receptors are activated. When stimulating alpha-2 receptors, calcium ion concentration decreases creating a negative feedback loop that inhibits norepinephrine release.

+
Butterworth  J.F., Mackey  D.C., Wasnick  J.D. (2013). Ch 14 Morgan & Mikhail's Clinical Anesthesiology (5th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

++
++
++

Which initial intervention is correct if pulmonary embolism is suspected?

++
++
++

(A) Discontinue intravenous fluids

++
++

(B) Increase FiO2

++
++

(C) Extubate the patient

++
++

(D) Discontinue inotropic support

++
++

B. Rationale: Increase intravenous fluids, keep the patient intubated, provide inotropic support, and increase FiO2.

+
Butterworth  J.F., Mackey  D.C., Wasnick  J.D. (2013). Ch 24 Morgan & Mikhail's Clinical Anesthesiology (5th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
+
Nagelhout  J.J., Plaus  K.L. (2014). Ch 26 Nurse Anesthesia (5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

++
++
++

Which anticholinergic increases heart rate the most?

++
++
++

(A) Scopolamine

++
++

(B) Glycopyrrolate

++
++

(C) Atropine

++
++

(D) Pyridostigmine

++
++

C. Rationale: While all anticholinergics increase heart rate, scopolamine exerts the least effect followed by glycopyrrolate. Pyridostigmine is a cholinesterase inhibitor.

+
Butterworth  J.F., Mackey  D.C., Wasnick  J.D. (2013). Ch 13 Morgan & Mikhail's Clinical Anesthesiology (5th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

++
++
++

What is the normal V/Q ratio?

++
++
++

(A) 1

++
++

(B) 0.8

++
++

(C) 2

++
++

(D) 0.5

++
++

B. Rationale: Normally, ventilation (V) is approximately 4 L/min, whereas pulmonary blood flow (Q) is approximately 5 L/min. Therefore, the ventilation-perfusion ratio (V/Q) for the whole lung is 0.8.

+
Butterworth  J.F., Mackey  D.C., Wasnick  J.D. (2013). Ch 23 Morgan & Mikhail's Clinical Anesthesiology (5th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
+
Nagelhout  J.J., Plaus  K.L. (2014). Ch 26 Nurse Anesthesia (5th ed.). St. Louis, ...

Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.