Chapter 5

### Introduction

Keywords

• flowmeters

• rotameter

• laminar-turbulent flow

• rotameter configuration

Similar to vaporizers, flowmeters are one of our interfaces with the anesthesia machine. Here is something that we can actually see in action. But there is more than meets the eye, as we will see. Flowmeters are part of the low-pressure system of the pneumatic part of the machine along with the high- and intermediate-pressure systems discussed in earlier chapters.

### Low-Pressure System

Technically, the low-pressure system is everything that is downstream of the flow control valves. This includes the flowmeters themselves, vaporizers, and one-way valves (to decrease pumping; discussed in the vaporizer Chapter 6) and ends at the common gas outlet (which is the end of the pneumatic part of the machine and the beginning of the ventilator part of the machine).

### Flowmeters and Their Parts

#### Flow Control Valve

The flow control valve is simply the thing attached to the knob we turn to adjust flow through the flowmeters. On most machines, flow control still uses a mechanical valve that is directly attached to one of the three knobs that are used to manipulate the flowmeters. However, some machines use electronic controls as the interface between the operator and the flowmeters.

With electronic flow control valves, the user may dial in the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) that is desired and which other gas to use to dilute the oxygen (nitrous oxide or air). The mixture is controlled by pressure sensors and may have input from the gas monitor or oxygen analyzer to maintain the concentration of oxygen that has been selected. The total fresh gas flow (FGF) with electronic flow control valves is set by yet another controller, instead of the standard way of controlling FGF via flow control valves with flowmeters. Electronic flow control valves thus allow a very exact control of oxygen concentration but with the penalty of needing electrical or battery power, something that traditional flow control valves and flowmeters do not need to function.

#### Control Knobs

You have probably noticed that the control knobs for the three different gases are color coded. The oxygen button and flowmeter are always on the right (more on that later). In addition, the oxygen knob is bigger and juts out more than the other two knobs. It is also fluted, so it feels different. That is all, of course, so when you need to increase the oxygen flow, you will with time know which one to change simply by touch and feel and not have to divert your eyes from the patient or monitors; you will instinctively know the most important of the three knobs by touch and not inadvertently change the air or nitrous oxide. All three of the knobs have some sort of guard around them to decrease ...

Sign in to your MyAccess profile while you are actively authenticated on this site via your institution (you will be able to verify this by looking at the top right corner of the screen - if you see your institution's name, you are authenticated). Once logged in to your MyAccess profile, you will be able to access your institution's subscription for 90 days from any location. You must be logged in while authenticated at least once every 90 days to maintain this remote access.

Ok

## Subscription Options

### AccessAnesthesiology Full Site: One-Year Subscription

Connect to the full suite of AccessAnesthesiology content and resources including procedural videos, interactive self-assessment, real-life cases, 20+ textbooks, and more