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A very rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by accumulation of glycosphingolipids in many tissues, which lead to neurological and ophthalmic lesions and to frequent, severe, pulmonary infections.

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N-acetyl-α-d-Galactosaminidase (NAGA); Kanzaki Disease (Schindler Disease adult form).

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Very rare (10 cases reported).

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Autosomal recessive.

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Caused by mutation of gene α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (α-GalNAc) located on 22q11. In individuals with Schindler disease, deficiency of the α-NAGA enzyme leads to an abnormal accumulation of certain complex compounds (glycosphingolipids) in many tissues of the body. It is classified among oligosaccharidoses or glycoproteinoses.

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Clinical evocation is difficult because the disorder is clinically heterogeneous. The infantile form of Schindler Disease, in which onset occurs by the end of the first year, is characterized by progressive hypotonia, extrapyramidal signs, and rapid psychomotor regression (as a result of abnormal lipid storage in nervous system). Death occurs within the first decade. In the adult form, angiokeratomas (abnormal lipid storage in the vessels) and moderate mental retardation are observed. Certitude diagnosis is biological: characteristic profile on the chromatography of urinary oligosaccharides, confirmed by the measurement of the α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity in leukocytes, fibroblasts, amniocytes, or trophoblasts.

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In the infantile form there is increasing neurological impairment, with progressive hypotonia, spasticity, no voluntary movements, decorticating posture, symmetric hyperreflexia, profound psychomotor retardation, and seizures by the age of 3 to 4 years. Other clinical features include ophthalmologic manifestations: bilateral optic atrophy, cortical blindness, nystagmus, and strabismus. Severe respiratory infections occur.

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Evaluate neurological status (clinical, CT/MRI, EEG, somatosensory evoked potentials) and muscular atrophy caused by nerve denervation (clinical). Assess respiratory function with chest radiograph.

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Intraoperative positioning must be done carefully because of the severe spasticity. Patients affected with active pulmonary infections must be postponed when possible. The presence of residual respiratory tract infection should not be disregarded because the perioperative incidence of complications is very high.

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Avoid succinylcholine because of the association of nerve demyclination and amyotrophic changes. The risk of hyperkalemia and sudden cardiac arrest is significant. Epileptic treatment has to be given the day of anesthesia. Consider anesthetic and antiepileptic drugs interactions.

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Seitelberger Syndrome: A rare inherited disorder characterized by the progressive degeneration of the central nervous system. Individuals affected with this disorder develop normally within the first 6 months to 2 years of age, at which time their psychomotor development slows and individuals begin to lose previously acquired skills. Clinically, this condition is characterized by severe nystagmus and strabismus, optic nerve atrophy and loss of vision, hypotonia, muscle spasticity, and/or deafness. Later on, children may exhibit dementia and neurological decerebration. It is inherited as an autosomal recessive genetic trait.

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Hallervorden-Spatz Disease: A rare neurological movement disorder characterized by the progressive degeneration of the central nervous system and abnormal accumulation of iron pigment in certain areas of the brain. It typically develops ...

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