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Pathologic fractures. Electrolyte disturbances, especially involving calcium and phosphate.

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Calciferol Osteomalacia; Idiopathic Pseudofracture; Looser Syndrome; Looser Zones; Looser-Debray-Milkman Syndrome; Osteoporosis-Osteomalacia Syndrome.

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Not genetic.

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Very old names for severe vitamin D deficiency. This can lead to decreased intestinal absorption of calcium and secondary hyperparathyroidism.

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Electrolytes should be carefully screened, especially calcium and phosphate, and corrected before anesthesia. Careful positioning of the osteopenic patient is necessary to prevent pathologic bone fractures. There is no evidence that a specific anesthetic drug or technique has advantages over any other. The response to the neuromuscular blocking drugs may be unpredictable.

Barash PG, Cullen BF, Stoelting RK: Clinical Anesthesia. Philadelphia, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001.

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