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Polymalformative syndrome characterized by short stature (dwarfism), mental retardation, and skeletal anomalies.

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Herrmann-Pallister Syndrome; Herrmann-Pallister-Opitz Syndrome.

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First described in 1975 by J. Herrmann, P.D. Pallister, W. Tiddy, and J.M. Opitz in two families with multiple affected members. The designation “KBG-Syndrome” reflects Opitz's preference of using the initials of patients' last names.

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To date, about 41 cases have been reported. Autosomal dominant, but also autosomal recessive transmission has been suspected in some cases.

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These patients have short stature (often below the third percentile; particularly short trunk, which may in part be due to anterior wedging and abnormal upper and lower plates of the vertebrae) and typical facial features that may include brachycephaly, hypertelorism, wide and bushy eyebrows, large prominent ears, anteverted nostrils with small alae nasi, long philtrum, and oligoand/or macrodontia. Cryptorchidism seems to be quite common in male patients. Other features that have been described in some of the patients include low anterior and posterior hairline, fused or wide upper central incisors, short metacarpalia and clinodactyly, accessory cervical ribs, thoracic kyphosis, and cardiac defects (e.g., ventricular septal defect).

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Mental retardation, however, is a constant finding and may be severe and accompanied by seizures. Hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis or the posterior fossa could be demonstrated in some patients.

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If kyphosis is severe, a chest radiograph should be obtained. Lung function tests are most likely difficult to perform on these mentally delayed patients. Echocardiography may not only be required to exclude structural cardiac lesions, but also to determine the presence of signs of cor pulmonale. Central neuraxial anesthesia techniques may be difficult to perform due to the vertebral anomalies. Patient cooperation could be limited secondary to mental retardation. Sedative and/or anxiolytic premedication and the presence of the primary caregiver for induction of anesthesia may be helpful.

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Subacute bacterial endocarditis prophylaxis may be required. Consider interactions of anesthetics with chronic anti-seizure therapy.

Bracanti F, D'Avanzo MG, Digilio MC, et al: KBG syndrome in a cohort of Italian patients. Am J Med Genet 131A:144, 2004.
Smithson SF, Thompson EM, McKinnon AG, et al: The KGB syndrome. Clin Dysmorphol 9:87, 2000.  [PubMed: 10826617]
Zollino M, Battaglia A, D'Avanzo MG, et al: Six additional cases of the KBG syndrome: Clinical reports and outline of the diagnostic criteria. Am J Med Genet 52:302, 1994.  [PubMed: 7810561]

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