Inherited disorder characterized by progressive
polyuria preceding the decline of renal function and leading to end-stage
renal disease during childhood or adolescence.
First reported in the literature in 1945 by Smith and
Graham, but the first description is attributed to Guido Fanconi, a Swiss
pediatrician, in 1951.
Most frequent genetic cause of end-stage renal disease
in childhood. Represents approximately 10 to 15% of end-stage renal
disease in children.
Four types of nephronophthisis (NPH), often
determined by the age at onset of end-stage renal failure. Terminal renal
failure develops at median ages of 1 year, 13 years, and 19 years in NPH II,
NPH I, and NPH III, respectively. Type IV is variable.
Type I (Familial Juvenile Nephronophthisis; NPH I): Characterized by anemia, polyuria, polydipsia, isosthenuria, and death in
uremia. It represent 80% of all NPH cases.
Type II (Infantile Nephronophthisis; NPH II): Characterized by hypertension, respiratory failure, pulmonary hypoplasia,
renal failure by age 3 years, hyperkalemic metabolic acidosis,
hyperkalemia, oligohydramnios, and neonatal death secondary to pulmonary
Type III (Adolescent Nephronophthisis; NPH III): Adolescent nephronophthisis is considered clearly distinct by clinical and
genetic findings than the other types. Most patients suffered from anemia,
and onset of terminal renal failure occurred significantly later than in
Type IV (NPH IV): Characterized by a triad of interstitial cell infiltrates, renal tubular
cell atrophy with cysts arising from the corticomedullary junction of the
kidneys, and renal interstitial fibrosis. Chromosomal localization is
reported on a fourth gene locus NPHP4. End-stage renal disease commenced
within a wider age range of 11 to 34 years. It usually is considered type
Loken Senior Syndrome is characterized by nephronophthisis in association
with retinitis pigmentosa or retinal aplasia, which is consistent with Leber Congenital
Amaurosis. The association of Leber Congenital Amaurosis (LCA) is present in 15% of all
cases affected with nephronophthisis. It is often considered a type III with
Depends on the clinical form. NPH I (80% of
cases) is inherited as a recessive trait (linkage for 2q13; possible second
locus 9q22-31). NPH II has recessive inheritance (unknown gene
localization). NPH III has no linkage for chromosome 2. NPH IV (medullary
cystic disease) is transmitted as an autosomal trait (gene map locus 1q21).
Changes are characteristic and include the
presence of atrophic tubules, irregularly thickened tubular basement
membrane, and focal interstitial fibrosis. As the disease progresses, diffuse
tubulointerstitial changes and medullary cysts are found. The biochemical
defect underlying the production of the defective tubular basement membrane
Confirmed by pathologic renal findings obtained from
Patients will complain of polyuria caused by
decreased renal concentrating ability. Progressive renal function
deterioration follows. Other features of the disease are growth retardation,
cerebellar dysfunction, liver involvement, and bone anomalies. Ocular
involvement is common. ...