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Chapter 2 [Pain Physiology]

Dougherty PM & Raja SN. Neurochemistry of somatosensory and pain processing. In: Benzon HT, Raja SN, Borsook D, Molloy RE, Strichartz G, eds. Essentials of Pain Medicine and Regional Anesthesia. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill-Livingstone; 2005:7-9.

Furst S. Transmitters involved in antinociception in the spinal cord—an analysis of descending and ascending pathways. Brain Res Bull. 1999;48(2):129-141(13).

Gohil K, Bell JR, Ramachandran J, Miljanich GP. Neuroanatomical distribution of receptors for a novel voltage-sensitive calcium channel antagonist, SNX-230 (ω-conopeptide MVIIC). Brain Res. 1994; 653:258-266.

Heavner JE, Willis ED. Pain pathways—anatomy and physiology. In: Raj PP, ed. Practical Management of Pain. 3rd ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2000:107-116.

Inturrisi CE, Jessel TM, Kelly TD. Pain and analgesia. In: Kandel ER, Schwartz JH, Jessell TM, eds. Principles of Neuroscience. 3rd ed. NewYork, NY: Elsevier; 1991.

Inturrisi CE. The role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in pain and morphine tolerance. Minerva Anestesiol. 2005;71(7-8):401-403.

Kerr LM, Filloux F, Olivera BM, Jackson H, Wamsley JK. Autoradiographic localization of calcium channels with [125I] ω-conotoxin in rat brain. Eur J Pharmacol. 1988;146:181-183.

Li J, Simone DA, Larson AA. Windup leads to characteristics of central sensitization. Pain. 1999;79(1): 75-82.

McMahon SB, Koltzenburg M, eds. Wall and Melzack's Textbook of Pain. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill-Livingstone; 2006.

Nassar MA, Stirling LC, Forlani A, et al. Nociceptor-specific gene deletion reveals a major role for Nav1.7 (PN1) in acute and inflammatory pain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101(34):12706-12711.

Petrenko AB, Yamakura T, Baba H, Shimoji K. The role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in pain: a review. Anesth Analg. 2003;97(4): 1108-1116.

Rauck RL, Wallace MS, Leong MS, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of intrathecal ziconotide in adults with severe chronic pain. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2006;31(5): 393-406.

Snutch TP. Targeting chronic and neuropathic pain: the N-type calcium channel comes of age. NeuroRx. 2005;2(4):662-670.

Tiengo MA, ed. Neuroscience: Focus on Acute and Chronic Pain. Springer-Verlag Italia; 2001. Gullo A, ed. Topics in Anesthesia and Critical Care.

Yaksh TL. Anatomy of the pain processing system. In: Waldman SD, ed. Interventional Pain Management. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders; 2001: 11-20.

Yamakage M, Namiki A. Calcium channels—basic aspects of their structure, function and gene encoding; anesthetic action on the channels—a review. Can J Anaesth. 2002;49:151-164.

Chapter 3 [Pain Pathophysiology]

Bennetto L, Patel NK, Fuller G. Trigeminal neuralgia and its management. BMJ. 2007;334(7586): 201-205.

Body JJ. Breast cancer: bisphosphonate therapy for metastatic bone disease. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12(20, pt 2):6258s-6263s.

Buchser E, Durrer A, Albrecht E. Spinal cord stimulation for the management of refractory angina pectoris. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2006;31(suppl 4): S36-S42.

Burbank KM, Stevenson JH, Czarnecki GR, Dorfman J. Chronic shoulder pain: part I. Evaluation and diagnosis. Am Fam Physician. 2008; 77(4):453-460.[PubMed: 18326164]

Calmbach WL, Hutchens M. Evaluation of patients presenting with knee pain: part II. Differential diagnosis. Am Fam Physician. 2003;68(5):917-922.

Cohen SP, Raja SN. Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of lumbar zygapophysial (facet) joint pain. Anesthesiology. 2007;106(3):591-614.

Dworkin RH, Gnann JW Jr, Oaklander AL, Raja SN, Schmader KE, Whitley RJ. Diagnosis and assessment of pain associated with herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia. J Pain. 2008;9(1)( suppl 1):S37-S44.

Eisendrath SJ. Psychiatric aspects of chronic pain. Neurology. 1995;45(12) (suppl 9):S26-S34.

Evans S, Moalem-Taylor G, Tracey DJ. Pain and endometriosis. Pain. 2007;132 (suppl 1):S22-S25.

Farquhar C. Endometriosis. BMJ. 2007;334(7587):249-253.

Fink E, Brenner G. Functional neuroanatomy and physiology of nociception. In: Loeser JD, ed. Bonica's Management of Pain. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. In press.

Fink E, Oaklander AL. Diabetic neuropathy. Pain Management Rounds. 2005;2(3):1-6.

Illis LS. Central pain. BMJ. 1990;300(6735):1284-1286.

Jänig W, Baron R. Complex regional pain syndrome: mystery explained? Lancet Neurol. 2003;2(11):687-697.

Jung BF, Ahrendt GM, Oaklander AL, Dworkin RH. Neuropathic pain following breast cancer surgery: proposed classification and research update. Pain. 2003;104(1-2):1-13.

Kass SM, Williams PM, Reamy BV. Pleurisy. Am Fam Physician. 2007;75(9):1357-1364.

MacEvilly M, Buggy D. Back pain and pregnancy: a review. Pain. 1996;64(3):405-414.

Martin RF, Rossi RL. The acute abdomen. An overview and algorithms. Surg Clin North Am. 1997;77(6):1227-1243.

Meeus M, Nijs J. Central sensitization: a biopsychosocial explanation for chronic widespread pain in patients with fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. Clin Rheumatol. 2007;26(4):465-473.

Miele VJ, Price KO, Bloomfield S, Hogg J, Bailes JE. A review of intrathecal morphine therapy related granulomas. Eur J Pain. 2006;10(3):251-261.

Mohammed I, Hussain A. Abrupt withdrawal from intrathecal baclofen: recognition and management of a potentially life-threatening syndrome. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2002;83(6):735-741.

Müller W, Schneider EM, Stratz T. The classification of fibromyalgia syndrome. Rheumatol Int. 2007;27(11):1005-1010.

Nair RJ, Lawler L, Miller MR. Chronic pancreatitis. Am Fam Physician. 2007;76(11):1679-1688.

Ossipov MH, Lai J, King T, Vanderah TW, Porreca F. Underlying mechanisms of pronociceptive consequences of prolonged morphine exposure. Biopolymers. 2005;80(2-3):319-24.

Sanchez-Del-Rio M, Reuter U, Moskowitz MA. New insights into migraine pathophysiology. Curr Opin Neurol. 2006;19(3):294-298.

Schofferman J, Reynolds J, Herzog R, Covington E, Dreyfuss P, O'Neill C. Failed back surgery: etiology and diagnostic evaluation. Spine J. 2003;3(5): 400-403.

Siccoli MM, Bassetti CL, Sándor PS. Facial pain: clinical differential diagnosis. Lancet Neurol. 2006;5(3):257-267.

Suresh E. Diagnosis of early rheumatoid arthritis: what the non-specialist needs to know. J R Soc Med. 2004;97(9):421-424.

Tallia AF, Cardone DA. Diagnostic and therapeutic injection of the ankle and foot. Am Fam Physician. 2003;68(7):1356-1362.

van Tulder M, Malmivaara A, Koes B. Repetitive strain injury. Lancet. 2007;369(9575):1815-1822.

Wang SM, Kain ZN, White PF. Acupuncture analgesia: II. Clinical considerations. Anesth Analg. 2008;106(2):611-621.

Wilbourn AJ. Thoracic outlet syndromes. Neurol Clin. 1999;17(3):477-497.

Wolfe F, Smythe HA, Yunus MB, et al. The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of fibromyalgia. Report of the multicenter criteria committee. Arthritis Rheum. 1990;33(2): 160-172.

Woolf CJ. Dissecting out mechanisms responsible for peripheral neuropathic pain: implications for diagnosis and therapy. Life Sci. 2004;74(21):2605-2610.

Yale SH, Nagib N, Guthrie T. Approach to the vaso-occlusive crisis in adults with sickle cell disease. Am Fam Physician. 2000;61(5):1349-1356,1363-1364.

Chapter 5 [Diagnosis of Pain States]

Almekinders LC, ed. Knee injuries. Soft Tissue Injuries in Sports Medicine. 1996:244-289.

Boulton AJM, Malik RA. Diabetic neuropathy. Med Clin North Am. 1998;82(4):909-929.

Boureau F, Doubrere JF, Luu M. Study of verbal description in neuropathic pain. Pain. 1990;42:145-152.

Brown DL, ed. Interscalene block. Atlas of Regional Anesthesia. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 1999: 23-29.

Canavan PK. Athletic injuries of the elbow. Rehabilitation in Sports Medicine: A Comprehensive Guide. Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange; 1998: 229-236.

Finnerup N B, Jensen T S. Spinal cord injury pain—mechanisms and treatment. Eur J Neurol. 2004;11(2): 73-82.

Houten JK, Errico TJ. Paraplegia after lumbosacral nerve root blockreport of three cases. Spine. 2002; 2(1):70-75.[PubMed: 14588291]

Loeser JD, ed. Bonica's Management of Pain. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001.

Magee DJ. Cervical spine. Orthopedic Physical Assessment. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders; 2002: 161.

Price DD, Staud R. Neurobiology of fibromyalgia syndrome. J Rheumatol Suppl. 2005;32(suppl 75):29-37.

Raj PP, ed. Pain Medicine: A comprehensive Review. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby; 2003.

Sammarco GJ, Cooper PS, eds. Foot and Ankle Manual. Philadelphia, PA: Lea and Febiger; 1998.

Somerville BW. Estrogen withdrawal migraine: duration of exposure of required and attempted prophylaxis by premenstrual estrogen administration. Neurology. 1975;25:239-244.

Waldman SD, ed. Interventional Pain Management. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders; 2001.

Chapter 6 [Diagnosis of Pain States]

Abdi S, Datta S, Trescot A, et al. Epidural steroids in the management of chronic spinal pain: a systematic review. Pain Physician. 2007;10:185-212.

Arnold LM, Lu Y, Crofford LJ, et al. A double-blind, multicenter trial was conducted that compared duloxetine to placebo in the treatment of fibromyalgia patients with or without major depressive disorder. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50: 2974-84.

Arnold LM, Rosen A, Pritchett YL, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of duloxetine in the treatment of women with fibromyalgia with or without major depressive disorder. Pain. 2005;119:5-15.

Ballas S. Pain management of sickle cell disease. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2005;19;785-802.

Barrett AM, Lucero MA, Rebecca L, et al. Epidemiology, public health burden, and treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain: a review. Pain Med. 2007;8:S50-S62.

Benzon HT, Raja SN, Borsook D, Molloy RE, Strichartz G, eds. Essentials of Pain Medicine and Regional Anesthesia. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill-Livingstone; 2005.

Birch S, Jamison RN. Controlled trial of Japanese acupuncture for chronic myofascial neck pain: assessment of specific and nonspecific effects of treatment. Clin J Pain. 1998;14:248-255.

Bogduk N. Clinical Anatomy of the Lumbar Spine and Sacrum. 4th ed. Edinburgh, UK: Churchill Livingstone; 2005.

Bogduk N. Low back pain. Clinical Anatomy of the Lumbar Spine and Sacrum. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 1997: 187-214.

Boswell M, Trescott A, Datta S, et al. Interventional techniques: evidence-based practice guidelines in the management of chronic spinal pain. Pain Physician. 2007;10:7-111.

Boswell MV, Cole BE, eds. Weiner's Pain Management: A Practical Guide for Clinicians. 7th ed. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor and Francis Group, LLC; 2006.

Botwin KP, Castellanos R, Rao S, et al. Complications of Fluoroscopically Guided Interlaminar Cervical Epidural Injections. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003;84:627-633.

Brenner GJ. Neural basis of pain. In: Ballantyne J, Fishman SM, Abdi S eds. The Massachusetts General Hospital Handbook of Pain Management. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2002:7-8.

Browner BD, Jupiter JB, Levine AM, Trafton PG, eds. Skeletal Trauma: Basic Science, Management, and Reconstruction. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders; 2003.

Campbell JN, Basbaum AL, Dray A, Dubner R, Dworkin RH, Sang CN, eds. Emerging Strategies for the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain. Seattle, WA: IASP Press; 2006.

Canale ST. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics. 10th ed. 2003: part VII, chap 25.

Goldman L, Ausiello D. Cecil's Textbook of Medicine. 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders (an imprint of Elsevier); 2004: part XVIII, chap 242.

Chen JT, Chen SM, Kuan TS, Chung KC, Hong CZ. Phentolamine effect on the spontaneous electrical activity of active loci in a myofascial trigger spot of rabbit skeletal muscle. Arch Phy Med Rehabil. 1998;79:790-794.

Clark SR, Bennett RM. Supplemental dextromethorphan in the treatment of fibromyalgia. A double blind, placebo controlled study of efficacy and side-effects. Arthritis Rheum. 2000;43:333.

Couppe C, Midttun M, Hilden J, Jorgensen U, Oxholm P, Fuglsang-Frederiksen A. Spontaneous needle electromyographic activity in myofascial trigger points in the infraspinatus muscle: a blinded assessment. J Muscoskel Pain. 2001;9(3):7-16.

Cummings TM, White A. Needling therapies in the management of myofascial trigger point pain: a systematic review. Arch Phy Med Rehabil. 2001;82: 986-992.

Finnerup NB, Jensen TS. Spinal cord injury pain—mechanisms and treatment. Eur J Neurol. 2004;11: 73-82.

Frontera WR, Silver JK. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Philadelphia, PA: Hanley & Belfus; 2002: part 2, sec I, chap 111.

Gam AN, Warming S, Larsen LH, et al. Treatment of myofascial trigger point with ultrasound combined with massage and exercise in a randomized controlled trial. Pain. 1998;77:73-79.

Gerwin R. A study of 96 subjects examined both for fibromyalgia and myofascial pain. J Muscoskel Pain. 1995;3(suppl 1):121.

Goetz CG, ed. Textbook of Clinical Neurology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders; 2003.

Gur A, Karakoc M, Nas E, et al. Cytokines and depression in cases with fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol. 2002;29(2):358-361.

Haldeman S, Carroll L, Cassidy J, et al. The bone and joint decade 2000-2010 task force on neck pain and its associated disorders: Executive summary. Spine. 2008;33(4S)(suppl):S5-S7.

Hansson PT, Fields HL, Hill RG, Marchettini P, eds. Neuropathic Pain: Pathophysiology and Treatment. Seattle, WA: IASP Press; 2001.

Harris RE, Clauw DJ, Scott DJ, et al. Decreased central mu-opioid receptor availability in fibromyalgia. J Neurosci. 2007;27(37):10000-10006.

Henriksson KG, Sorensen J. The promise of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists in fibromyalgia. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2002;28: 343-351.

Holman AJ, Myers RR. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pramipexole, a dopamine agonist, in patients with fibromyalgia receiving concomitant medications. Arthritis Rheum. 2005;52(8):2495-2505.

Hong CZ. Lidocaine injection versus dry needling to myofascial trigger point. Am J Physi Medi Rehab. 1994;73:256-263.

Hubbard DR, Berkoff GM. Myofascial trigger points show spontaneous needle EMG activity. Spine. 1993;18:1803-1807.

Huntoon MA. Anterior spinal artery syndrome as a complication of transforaminal epidural steroid injections. Seminars in Pain Medicine. 2004;2(4):204-207.

International Headache Society. International classification of headache disorders. Second edition. Cephalalgia. 2004;24(suppl 1):8-160.

Jankovic D, Wells C. Regional Nerve Blocks, 2nd ed, Berlin, Germany: Blackwell; 2001: 232.

Kang YK, Russell IJ, Vipraio GA, et al. Low urinary 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid in fibromyalgia syndrome: evidence in support of a serotonin-deficiency pathogenesis. Myalgia. 1998;1:14-21.

Little A, Edwards J, Feldman E. Diabetic neuropathies. Pract Neurol. 2007;7(2):82-92.

Loeser JD, ed. Bonica's Management of Pain. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001.

Manchikanti L, Manchikanti K, Cash K, et al. Age-related prevalence of facet-joint involvement in chronic neck and low back pain. Pain Physician. 2008;11(1):67-75.

McMahon SB, Koltzenburg M, eds. Wall and Melzack's Textbook of Pain. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill-Livingstone; 2006.

Moldofsky H. Management of sleep disorders in fibromyalgia. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2002;28:353-365.

Moss J, Glick D. The autonomic nervous system. In: Miller RD, ed. Miller's Anesthesia. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill-Livingstone; 2005: sec II, chap 16.

Nachemson A, Jonsson E, eds. Neck and Back Pain: The Scientific Evidence of Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000.

Porter RW. Spinal stenosis and neurogenic claudication. Spine. 1996;21(17):2046-2052.

Raj P. Practical Management of Pain, 3rd ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2000.

Raj PP, ed. Pain Medicine: A Comprehensive Review. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby; 2003.

Simons DG, Hong CZ, Simons LS. Endplate potentials are common to midfiber myofascial trigger points. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2003;81:212-222.

Sjaastad O, Fredriksen TA, Pfaffenrath V. Cervicogenic headache: diagnostic criteria. Headache. 1998;38:442-445.

Spitzer WO, Skovron ML, Salmi LR, et al. Scientific monograph of the Quebec Task Force on whiplash-associated disorders: redefining "whiplash" and its management. Spine. 1995;20(8S):1S-73S.

Sykes N, Fallon MT, Patt RB. Clinical Pain Management: Cancer Pain. London, UK: Arnold; 2003.

Travell J. Myofascial trigger points: clinical view. In: Bonica JJ, Albe-Fessard D, eds. Advances in Pain Research and Therapy. New York, NY: Raven Press; 1976:919-926.

Waldman SD, ed. Pain Management. vol. 1. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2007.

Wall PD, Melzack R. Textbook of Pain. 4th ed. Edinburgh, UK: Churchill Livingstone; 1999.

Wallace DJ, Linker-Israeli M, Hallegua D, et al. Cytokines play an aetiopathogenetic role in fibromyalgia: a hypothesis and pilot study. Rheumatology. 2001;40:743-749.

Wallace M, Staats P, eds. Pain Medicine & Management: Just the Facts. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2005.

Wilson PR, Stanton-Hicks M, Harden NR eds. CRPS: Current Diagnosis and Therapy. Seattle, WA: IASSP Press; 2005.

Wolfe F, Smythe HA, Yunus MB, et al. The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of fibromyalgia. Report of the multicenter criteria committee. Arthritis Rheum. 1990;33(2):160-172.

Wood PB, Schweinhardt P, Jaeger E, et al. Fibromyalgia patients show an abnormal dopamine response to pain. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;25(12):3576-3582.

Chapter 7 [Pain Assessment]

McMahon SB, Koltzenburg M, eds. Wall and Melzack's Textbook of Pain. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill-Livingstone; 2006.

Raj PP. Pain Medicine: A Comprehensive Review. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby; 2003.

Raj PP, ed. Practical Management of Pain. 3rd ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2000.

Chapter 8 [Pain Management Techniques]

Abdi S, Datta S, Trescot AM, et al. Epidural steroids in the management of chronic spinal pain: a systematic review. Pain Physician. 2007;10(1):185-212.

Ackerman WE 3rd, Ahmad M. The efficacy of lumbar epidural steroid injections in patients with lumbar disc herniations. Anesth Analg. 2007;104(5): 1217-22.

Ahadian FM. Pulsed radiofrequency neurotomy: advances in pain medicine. CurrPain HeadacheRep. 2004;8:34-40.

Amoils SP. The Joule Thomson cryoprobe. Arch Opthalmol. 1967:78(2):201-207.

Ballantyne JC, Fishman SM, Abdi S. The Massachusetts General Hospital Handbook of Pain Management. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: 2005.

Bogduk N, Macintosh J, Marsland A. Technical limitations to the efficacy of radiofrequency neurotomy for spinal pain. Neurosurgery. 1987;20(4):529-535.

Buonocore M, Bonezzi C, Barolet G. Neurophysio- logical evidence of antidromic activation of large myelinated fibers in lower limbs during spinal cord stimulation. Spine. 2008;33(4): E90-E93.

Buvanendran A, Lubenow TJ. Efficacy of transverse tripolar spinal cord stimulator for the relief of chronic low back pain from failed back surgery. Pain Physician. 2008;11(3):333-338.

Cohen SP, Abdi S. Lateral branch blocks as a treatment for sacroiliac joint pain: a pilot study. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2003;28(2):113-119.

Cohen SP, Larkin T, Abdi S, Chang A, Stojanovic M. Risk factors for failure and complications of intradiscal electrothermal therapy: a pilot study. Spine. 2003;28(11):1142-1147.

Cohen SP, Larkin T, Fant GV, Oberfoell R, Stojanovic MP. Does needle insertion site affect diskography results? A retrospective analysis. Spine. 2002; 27(20):2279-2283; discussion 2283.[PubMed: 12394907]

Cohen SP, Larkin TM, Barna SA, Palmer WE, Hecht AC, Stojanovic MP. Lumbar discography: a comprehensive review of outcome studies, diagnostic accuracy, and principles. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2005;30(2):163-183.

Cohen SP, Raja SN. Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of lumbar zygapophysial (facet) joint pain. Anesthesiology. 2007;106(3):591-614.

Cooper IS, Lee AS. Cryostatic congelation: a system for producing a limited, controlled region of cooling or freezing of biologic tissues. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1961;133:259-263.

Deer T, Masone J. Selection of spinal cord stimulation candidates for the treatment of chronic pain. Pain Med. 2008;9(S1):82-92.

Deer TR, Raso LJ. Spinal cord stimulation for refractory angina pectoris and peripheral vascular disease. Pain Physician. 2006;9(4):347-352.

Deer TR. Spinal cord stimulation for the treatment of angina and peripheral vascular disease. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2009;13(1):18-23.

Falowski S, Celii A, Sharan A. Spinal cord stimulation: an update. Neurotherapeutics. 2008;5:86-99.

Forward KR, Fewer HD, Stiver HG. Cerebrospinal fluid shunt infections. A review of 35 infections in 32 patients. J Neurosurg. 1983;59(3):389-394.

Govind J, King W, Bailey B, Bogduk N. Radiofrequency neurotomy for the treatment of third occipital headache. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74(1):88-93.

Hansen HC, McKenzie-Brown AM, Cohen SP, et al. Sacroiliac joint interventions a systematic review. Pain Physician. 2007;10:165-184.

Harke H, Gretenkort P, Ladlef HU, et al. Spinal cord stimulation in sympathetically maintained complex regional pain syndrome type I with severe disability. A prospective clinical study. Eur J Pain. 2005;9(4):363-373.

Holsheimer J, Struijk JJ, Tas NR, et al. Effects of electrode geometry and combination on nerve fibre selectivity in spinal cord stimulation. Med Biol Eng Comput. 1995;33(5):676-682.

Kapur S, Mutagi H, Southall J, et al. Long-term outcome of spinal cord stimulation in late complex regional pain syndrome. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2006;31(5)(suppl 1):46.

Kapural L, Mekhail N, Hayek SM, Stanton-Hicks M, Malak O, Occipital nerve electrical stimulation via the midline approach and subcutaneous surgical leads for treatment of severe occipital neuralgia: a pilot study. Anesth Analg. 2005, 101(1): 171-174[PubMed: 15976227]

Kapural L, Narouze SN, Janicki TI, et al. Spinal cord stimulation is an effective treatment for chronic intractable visceral pelvic pain. Pain Med. 2006;7(5):440-443.

Kapural L, Rakic M. Spinal cord stimulation for chronic visceral pain secondary to chronic non-alcoholic pancreatitis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2008; 42(6):750-751.[PubMed: 18496389]

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Klomp HM, Steyerberg EW, van Urk H, et al. Spinal cord stimulation is not cost-effective for non-surgical management of critical limb ischaemia. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2006;31(5):500-508.

Kumar K, Nath RK, Toth C. Spinal cord stimulation is effective in the management of reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Neurosurgery. 1997;40(3):503-508.

Kumar K, Taylor RS, Jacques L, et al. Spinal cord stimulation versus conventional medical management for neuropathic pain: a multicenter randomized controlled trial in patients with failed back surgery syndrome. Pain. 2007;132(1-2):179-188.

Lloyd JW, Barnard JD, Glynn CJ. Cryoanalgesia. A new approach to pain relief. Lancet. 1976;2(7992): 932-934.

Malanga GA. Lumbosacral facet syndrome., Published July 15, 2008, Updated: July 15, 2008. Accessed March 29, 2009.

Manjunath PS, Jayalakshmi TS, Dureja GP, et al. Management of lower limb complex regional pain syndrome type 1: an evaluation of percutaneous radiofrequency thermal lumbar sympathectomy versus phenol lumbar sympathetic neurolysis—a pilot study. Anesth Analg. 2008;106:647-649.

Mayer RD, Howard FM. Sacral nerve stimulation: neuromodulation for voiding dysfunction and pain. Neurotherapeutics. 2008;5:107-113.

Mekhail NA, Aeschbach A, Stanton-Hicks M, et al. Cost benefit analysis of neurostimulation for chronic pain. Clin J Pain. 2004;20:462-468.

Melzack R, Wall PD. Mechanisms: a new theory. A gate control system modulates sensory input from the skin before it evokes pain perception and response. Science. 1965;150(699):971-979.

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North R, Prager J, Barolat G, et al. Practice parameters for the use of spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain. Pain Med. 2007;8(S4):S200-S275.

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Oakley JC. Spinal cord stimulation: patient selection, technique, and outcomes. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2003;14(3):365-380.

Prager J, Jacobs M. Evaluation of patients for implantable pain modalities: behavioral assessment. Clin J Pain. 2001;17(3):206-214.

Qin C, Lehew RT, Khan KA et al. Spinal cord stimulation modulates intraspinal colorectal visceroreceptive transmission in rats. Neurosci Res. 2007;58(1):58-66.

Raj P, Lou L, Erdine S, et al. Radiographic Imaging for Regional Anesthesia and Pain Management. Marrickville, N.S.W: Churchill Livingstone; 2003.

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Sayson SC, Ramamurthy S, Hoffman J. Incidence of genitofemoral nerve block during lumbar sympathetic block: comparison of two lumbar injection sites. Reg Anesth.1997; 22(6):569-574.[PubMed: 9425975]

Shealy CN. Percutaneous radiofrequency denervation of spinal facets: treatment for chronic back pain and sciatica. J Neurosurg. 1975;43:448-451.

Simonpoulos TT, Malik AB, Sial KA, et al. Radiofrequency lesioning of the L2 ramus communicans in managing discogenic low back pain. Pain Physician. 2005;8:61-65.

Slappendel R, Crul BJ, Braak GJ, et al. The efficacy of radiofrequency lesioning of the cervical spinal dorsal root ganglion in double-blinded, randomized study: no difference between 40 degrees C and 67 degrees C treatments. Pain. 1997;73:159-163.

Slipman CW, Derby R, Simeone FA, et al. Interventional Spine an Algorithmic Approach. Saunders Elsevier, USA; 2007.

Sluijter M, Racz G. Technical aspects of radiofrequency. Pain Pract. 2002;2(3):195-200.

Smith TJ, Staats PS, Deer T, et al. Randomized clinical trial of an implantable drug delivery system compared with comprehensive medical management for refractory cancer pain: impact on pain, drug-related toxicity, and survival. J Clin. 2002;20(19):4040-4049.

Stanton-Hicks M, Salamon J. Stimulation of the central and peripheral nervous system for the control of pain. J Clin Neurophysiol. 1997;14(1):46-62.

Stanton-Hicks M. Complex regional pain syndrome: manifestations and the role of neurostimulation in its management. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2006; 31(suppl 4):S20-S24.

Stojanovic MP, Dey D, Hord ED, Zhou Y, Cohen SP. A prospective crossover comparison study of the single-needle and multiple-needle techniques for facet-joint medial branch block. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2005;30(5):484-490.

Stojanovic MP, Vu TN, Caneris O, Slezak J, Cohen SP, Sang CN. The role of fluoroscopy in cervical epidural steroid injections: an analysis of contrast dispersal patterns. Spine. 2002;27(5):509-514.

Stojanovic MP. Stimulation methods for neuropathic pain control. CurrPain HeadacheRep. 2001;5(2):130-137.

Tekin I MIrzai H, Erbuyun K, et al. A comparison of conventional and pulsed radiofrequency denervation in the treatment of chronic facet joint pain. Clin J Pain. 2007;23:524-529.

Tracy JP, Gaeta R. Neurolytic blocks revisited. Curr Pain HeadacheRep. 2008;12:7-13.

Tran KM, Frank SM, Raja SN, El-Rahmany HK, Kim LJ, Vu B. Lumbar sympathetic block for sympathetically maintained pain: changes in cutaneous temperatures and pain perception. Anesth Analg. 2000;90(6):1396-1401.

Trescot A. Cryoanalgesia in interventional pain management. Pain Physician. 2003;6:345-360.

Vallejo R, Benyamin RM, Kramer J, et al. Pulsed radiofrequency denervation for the treatment of sacroiliac joint syndrome. Pain Med. 2006;7(5):429-434.

Wall PD, Sweet WH. Temporary abolition of pain in man. Science. 1967;155(758):108-109.

Warfield CA, Bajwa ZH. Principles and Practice of Pain Medicine. 2nd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2004.

Chapter 9 [Complementary Andalternative Medicine]

Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. Chiropractic in the United States: Training, Practice, and Research. Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research; 1998: AHCPR publication no. 98-N002.

Astin JA, Shapiro SL, Eisenberg DM, et al. Mind-body medicine: state of the science, implications for practice. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2003;16(2):131-147.

Barnes P, Powell-Griner E, McFann K, Nahin R. CDC advance data report #343. Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults: United States, 2002. NCCAM Press Release. May 27, 2004.

Barrett BP, Brown RL, Locken K, et al. Treatment of the common cold with unrefined Echinacea: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 2002;137(12):939-946.

Daniel O Clegg, Domenic J Reda, Crystal L Harris, et al. Glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and the two in combination for painful knee osteoarthritis. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(8):795-808.

Eisenberg DM, Davis RB, Ettner SL, et al. Trends in alternative medicine use in the United States, 1990-1997, results of a follow-up national survey. JAMA. 1998;280(18):1569-1575.

Ernst E, White A. Life-threatening adverse reactions after acupuncture? A systematic review. Pain. 1997;71:123-126.

Fugh-Berman A. Echinacea for the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory infections. Seminars in Integrative Medicine. 2003;1(2):106-111.

Haldeman S, Rubinstein SM. Cauda equina syndrome in patients undergoing manipulation of the lumbar spine. Spine. 1992;17(12):1469-1473.

Hufnagel A, Hammers A, Schonle PW, et al. Stroke following chiropractic manipulation of the cervical spine. J Neurol. 1999;246(8):683-688.

Hui KK, Liu J, Makris N, et al. Acupuncture Modulates the Limbic System and Subcortical Gray Structures of the Human Brain: Evidence from fMRI Studies in Normal Subjects. Hum Brain Mapp. 2000;9(1):13-25.

Jeret JS, Bluth M. Stroke following chiropractic manipulation: report of 3 cases and review of the literature. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2002;13(3):210-213.

Jonas WB, Kaptchuk TJ, Linde K. A critical overview of homeopathy. Ann Intern Med. 2003;138(5):393-399.

Lang EV, Benotsch EG, Fick LJ, et al. Adjunctive non-pharmacological analgesia for invasive medical procedures: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2000;355(9214):1486-1490.

Luskin FM, Newell KA, Griffith M, et al. A review of mind/body therapies in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders with implications for the elderly. Altern Ther Health Med. 2000;6(2):46-56.

Ma SX. Neurobiology of acupuncture: toward CAM. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2004;1(1):41-47.

Melchart D, Weidenhammer W, Streng A, et al. Prospective investigation of adverse effects of acupuncture in 97,733 patients. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(1):104-105.

Mundy EA, DuHamel KN, Montgomery GH. The efficacy of behavioral interventions for cancer treatment-related side effects. Semin Clin Neuropsychiatry. 2003;8(4):253-275.

National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), Basic CAM information.

Rutledge JC, Hyson DA, Garduno D, et al. Lifestyle modification program in management of patients with coronary artery disease: the clinical experience in a tertiary care hospital. J Cardiopulm Rehabil. 1999;19(4):226-234.

Senstad O, Leboeuf-Yde C, Borchgrevink C. Frequency and characteristics of side effects of spinal manipulative therapy. Spine. 1997;22(4): 435-440.

Shekelle PG, Adams AH, Chassin MR, et al. Spinal manipulation for low-back pain. Ann Intern Med. 1992;117(7):590-598.

Smith MJ, Logan AC. Naturopathy. Med Clin North Am. 2002;86(1):173-184.

Solomon PR, Adams F, Silver A, Zimmer J, DeVeaux R. Ginkgo for memory enhancement: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002;288(7):835-840.

Taylor JA, Weber W, Standish L, et al. Efficacy and safety of Echinacea in treating upper respiratory tract infections in children: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2003;290(21):2824-2830.

Vickers A, Zollman C. ABC of complementary medicine. The manipulative therapies: osteopathy and chiropractic. BMJ. 1999;319(7218):1176-1179.

Wetzel MS, Eisengerg DM, Kaptchuk TJ. Course involving complementary and alternative medicine at U.S Medical School. JAMA. 1998;280(9): 784-787.

Zhang WT, Jin Z, Cui GH, et al. Relations between brain network activation and analgesic effect induced by low versus high frequency electrical acupoint stimulation in different subjects: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Brain Res. 2003;982(2):168-178.

Chapter 10 [Interdisciplinary Pain Management]

Mason RJ, Broaddus VC, Murray JF, Nadel JA, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2005.

McMahon SB, Koltzenburg M, eds. Wall and Melzack's Textbook of Pain. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2006.

Raj P, ed. Practical Management of Pain. 3rd ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2000.

Wallace M, Staats P. Pain Medicine & Management: Just the Facts. New York, NY: McGraw Hill; 2005.

Chapter 11 [Behavioral and Psychological Aspects of Pain]

Arnstein P, Vidal M, Wells-Federman C, et al. From chronic pain patient to peer: benefits and risks of volunteering. Pain Manag Nurs. 2002;3:94-103.

Asmundson GJ, Jacobson, SJ, Allerdings M, Norton GR. Social phobia in disabled workers with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Behav Res Ther. 1996;34:939-943.

Barsky AJ. Amplification, somatization, and the somatoform disorders. Psychosomatics. 1992;33(1): 28-34.

Belgrade MJ, Cassandra D, Schamber D, Lindgren BR. The DIRE Score: Predicting Outcomes of Opioid Prescribing for Chronic Pain. J Pain. 2006;7(9):671-681.

Blanchard EB, Hickling EJ. After the Crash: Psychological Assessment and Treatment of Survivors of Motor Vehicle Accidents. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, USA; 2004.

Block, AR. Investigation of the response of the spouse to chronic pain behavior. Psychosom Med. 1981;43(5):415-422.

Boothby JL, Thorn BE, Overduin LY, Ward LC. Catastrophizing and perceived partner response to pain. Pain. 2004;109(3):500-506.

Breau LM, Camfield CS, McGrath PJ, Finley GA. Risk factors for pain in children with severe neurological impairments. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2004; 46(6):364-371.[PubMed: 15174527]

Butler SF, Budman SH, Fernandez K, Jamison RN. Validation of a screener and opioid assessment measure for patients with chronic pain. Pain. 2004;112:65-75.

Caudill M, Schnable R, Zuttermeister P, et al. Decreased clinic use by chronic pain patients: response to behavioral medicine intervention. Clin J Pain. 1991;7(4):305-310.

Charlton JE. Core Curriculum for Professional Education in Pain. Seattle, WA: IASP Press; 2005.

Dworkin RH, Turk DC, Farrar JT, et al. Core outcome measures for chronic pain clinical trials: IMMPACT recommendations. Pain. 2005;113(1-2): 9-19.

Edwards LC, Pearce SA, Turner-Stokes L, Jones A. The pain beliefs questionnaire: an investigation of beliefs in the causes and consequences of pain. Pain. 1992;51(3):267-72.

Fishbain DA. The association of chronic pain and suicide. Semin Clin Neuropsychiatry. 1999;4(3):221-227.

Gatchel RJ, Turk DC, eds. Psychosocial Factors in Pain: Clinical Perspectives. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 1999.

Jacox AK, Carr DB, Payne R, et al. Management of Cancer Pain. Clinical Practice Guideline No. 9 (AHCPR Pub. No. 94-0592). Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research; 1994.

Jansen DEMC, Krol B, Groothoff JW, Post D. People with intellectual disability and their health problems: a review of comparative studies. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2004;48:93-102.

Jessup BA, Gallegos X. Relaxation and biofeedback. In: Wall PD, Melzack R, eds. Textbook of Pain. 3rd ed. Edinburgh, UK: Churchill Livingstone; 1994: 1321-1336.

Kapteyn A, Smith JP, van Soest A. Dynamics of Work Disability and Pain. IZA Discussion Papers 2057, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA): 2006.

Karjalainen K, Malmivaara A, van Tulder M, et al. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation for fibromyalgia and musculoskeletal pain in working age adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 1999, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD001984. DOI: 10.1002/ 14651858.CD001984.

Keefe FJ, Lefebvre JC, Egert JR, Affleck G, Sullivan MJ, Caldwell DS. The relationship of gender to pain, pain behavior, and disability in osteoarthritis patients: the role of catastrophizing. Pain. 2000;87(3):325-334.

Keefe FJ, Rumble ME, Scipio CD, Giordano LA, Perri LM. Psychological aspects of persistent pain: current state of the science. J Pain. 2004;5(4):195-211.

Kori SH, Miller RP, Todd DD. Kinesiophobia. A new view of chronic pain behavior. Pain Management. 1990;19:35-43.

Kulich RJ, Andrew L. Psychological assessment and behavioral treatment of chronic pain. In: Ballantyne J, ed. Massachusetts General Hospital Pain Handbook. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005.

Kulich RJ, Mencher P, Bertrand C, Maciewicz R. Post traumatic stress disorder: assessment and treatment: clinical and forensic issues. Curr Rev Pain, Current Science. 2000;4:36-48.

Lande S, Kulich RJ, eds. Managed Care and Pain. Glenview, IL: American Pain Society; 2000.

Mailis-Gagnon A, Furlan AD, Sandoval JA, Taylor R. Spinal cord stimulation for chronic pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2004;3 (Art. No.: CD003783. DOI: 10. 1002/14651858. CD003783.pub2).

Main C, Wood PL, Hollis S, et al. The distress and risk assessment method; a simple patient classification to identify distress and evaluate the risk of poor outcome. Spine. 1992;17:42-52.

McCracken LM, Gross RT, Sorg PJ, Edmands TA. Prediction of pain in patients with chronic low back pain: effects of inaccurate prediction and pain-related anxiety. Behavior Research Therapy. 1993;31(7),647-652.

McCracken LM, Zayfert C, Gross RT. The Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale: a multimodal measure of pain-specific anxiety. Behavior Therapist. 1993;16:183-184.

McCracken LM. Social context and acceptance of chronic pain: the role of solicitous and punishing responses. Pain. 2005;113:155-159.

McDonald HP, Garg AX, Haynes RB. Interventions to enhance patient adherence to medication prescriptions: scientific review. JAMA. 2002;288(22): 2868-2879.

Mercado AC, Carroll LJ, Cassidy D, Cote P. Passive coping is a risk factor for disabling neck or low back pain. Pain. 2005;117(1-2):51-57.

Morin CM, Culbert JP, Schwartz SM. Nonpharmaco- logical interventions for insomnia: a meta-analysis of treatment efficacy. Am J Psychiatry. 1994; 151:1172-1180.

Nicolaisis C, Curry M, Benson, M. Gerity M. Violence, mental health, and physical symptoms in an academic internal medicine practice. J Gen Intern Med. 2004;19:819-827.

Polatin PB, Kinney RK, Gatchel RJ, Lillo E, Mayer TG. Psychiatric illness and chronic low-back pain. The mind and the spine—which goes first? Spine. 1993;18:66-71.

Prochaska JO, DiClemente CC, Norcross JC. In search of how people change. Applications to addictive behaviors. Am Psychol. 1992;47(9):1102-1114.

Rogers R, Bender SD. Evaluation of malingering and deception. In: Goldstein AM, Weiner IB, eds. Handbook of Psychology. 2003: 109. Forensic Psychology, vol 11. Wiley, USA.

Rosenstiel AK, Keefe FJ. The use of coping strategies in chronic low back pain patients: relationship to patient characteristics and current adjustment. Pain. 1983;17(1):33-44.

Rudy TE, Turk DC, Kubinski JA, Zaki HS. Differential treatment response of TMD patients as a function of psychological characteristics. Pain. 1995;61:103-112.

Rush AJ, Beck AT, Kovacs M, Hollon S. Comparative efficacy of cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy in the treatment of depressed outpatients. Cognit Ther Res. 1977;1:17-37.

Savage S, Covington EC, Gilson AM, GourlayD, Heit HA, Hunt JB. Public Policy Statement on the Rights and Responsibilities of Healthcare Professionals in the use of Opioids for the Treatment of Pain. American Pain Society; March 2004: http:// Accessed on March 29, 2009.

Schatman, ME, Campbell A. Chronic Pain Management: Guidelines for Multidisciplinary Program Development. New York, NY: Informa Healthcare; 2007.

Schwartz MS. Biofeedback: A Practitioner's Guide. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 1995.

Schwarzer R, Jerusalem M. Generalized self-efficacy scale. In: Weinman J, Wright S, Johnson M, eds. Measures in Health Psychology: A User's Portfolio, Causal and Control Beliefs. Windsor, UK: NFER Nelson; 1995: 35-37.

Sullivan MJ, Thorn B, Haythornthwaite, JA, et al. Theoretical perspectives on the relation between catastrophizing and pain. Clin J Pain. 2001;17(1):52-64.

Turk DC, Flor H. Pain greater than pain behaviors. The utility of the pain behavior construct. Pain. 1987;31:277-295.

Turk DC, Gatchel RJ, eds. Psychological Approaches to Pain Management: A Practitioner's Handbook. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 2002.

Turk DC, Melzack R. Handbook of Pain Assessment. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 2005.

Turk DC, Okifuji A. Detecting depression in chronic pain patients: adequacy of self-reports. Behavior Research Therapy. 1994;32:9-16.

Turner JA. Nonspecific treatment effects. In: Loeser JD, ed. Bonica's Management of Pain. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001: 1649-1656.

Waddell G, Burton AK, Main CJ. Screening for Risk of Long-Term Incapacity: A Conceptual and Scientific Review. London, UK: Royal Society of Medicine Press; 2003.

Wilson L, Dworkin SF, Whitney C, LeResche L. Somatization and pain dispersion in chronic temporomandibular disorder pain. Pain. 1994; 57(1):55-61.[PubMed: 8065797]

Chapter 12 [Drug Abuse and Addiction]; Chapter 13 [Medicolegal Issues]; Chapter 14 [Compensation Anddisability Assessment]

Cocchiarella L, Andersson GBJ. AMA Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment. USA: AMA Press; 2004.

Manchikanti L. Recent developments in evaluation and management services. Pain Physician. 2000;3:403-421.

Chapter 15 [Rehabilitation]

Akuthota V, Nadler SF. Core strengthening. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004;85(3)(suppl 1):S86-S92.

Arnold L. Duloxetine and Other Antidepressants in the Treatment of Patients with Fibromyalgia. Pain Medicine. 2007; 8 (S2): S63-S74.

Busanich BM, Verscheure SD. Does McKenzie therapy improve outcomes for back pain? J Athl Train. 2006;41(1):117-119.

Chou LH, Akuthota V, Drake DF, Toledo SD, Nadler SF. Sports and performing arts medicine. 3. Lower-limb injuries in endurance sports. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004;85(3)(suppl 1):S59-S66.

DeLisa JA, Gans BM, Walsh NE, Bockenek WL, Frontera WR, eds. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Principles and Practice. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: 2005.

Foye PM, Sullivan WJ, Sable AW, Panagos A, Zuhosky JP, Irwin RW. Industrial medicine and acute musculoskeletal rehabilitation. 3. Work-related

musculoskeletal conditions: the role for physical therapy, occupational therapy, bracing, and modalities. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007;88(3) (suppl 1):S14-S17.

Harden RN. Muscle pain syndromes. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2007;86(suppl):S47-S58.

Henneman E, Clamann HP, Gillies JD, Skinner RD. Rank order of motoneurons within a pool: law of combination. J Neurophysiol. 1974;37(6):1338-1349.

Hord and Shannon. Phantom pain. In: Raj PP, ed. Practical Management of Pain. 3rd ed. Raj P. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2000: 212-213.

Jellema P, van tulder MW, van Poppel MN, Nachemson AL, Bouter LM. Lumbar supports for prevention and treatment of low back pain: a systematic review within the framework of the Cochrane Back Review Group. Spine. 2001;26:377-86.

Lang AM. Botulinum toxin type A therapy in chronic pain disorders. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003;84(3) (suppl 1):S69-S73.

Panagos A, Sable AW, Zuhosky JP, Irwin RW, Sullivan WJ, Foye PM. Industrial medicine and acute musculoskeletal rehabilitation. 1. Diagnostic testing in industrial and acute musculoskeletal injuries. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2007;88(3)(suppl 1): S3-S9.

Slipman CW, Sterenfeld EB, Chou LH, Herzog R, Vresilovic E. The predictive value of provocative sacroiliac joint stress maneuvers in the diagnosis of sacroiliac joint syndrome. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1998;79(3):288-292.

Stanos SP, Prather H, Press JM, Young JL. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Approaches to Pain Management. In: Benzon HT, Raja SN, Borsook D, Molloy RE, Strichartz G, eds. Essentials of Pain medicine and Regional Anesthesia. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill-Livingstone Elsevier; 2005: 197-208.

Sullivan WJ, Panagos A, Foye PM, Sable AW, Irwin RW, Zuhosky JP. Industrial medicine and acute musculoskeletal rehabilitation. 2. Medications for the treatment of acute musculoskeletal pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007;88(3)(suppl 1):S10-S13.

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