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  • image Brain death criteria can be applied only in the absence of hypothermia, hypotension, metabolic or endocrine abnormalities, neuromuscular blockers, or drugs known to depress brain function.
  • image Hyperoxia and hypoxia are risk factors, but not the primary causes of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Neonates’ risk of ROP increases with low birth weight and complexity of comorbidities (eg, sepsis).
  • image Pressure control ventilation (PCV) is similar to pressure support ventilation in that peak airway pressure is controlled but is different in that a mandatory rate and inspiratory time are selected. As with pressure support, gas flow ceases when the pressure level is reached; however, the ventilator does not cycle to expiration until the preset inspiration time has elapsed.
  • image The disadvantage of conventional PCV is that tidal volume (Vt) is not guaranteed (although there are modes in which the consistent delivered pressure of PCV can be combined with a predefined volume delivery).
  • image When compared with orotracheal intubation, nasotracheal intubation may be more comfortable for the patient and more secure (fewer instances of accidental extubation).
  • image When left in place for more than 2-3 weeks, both orotracheal and nasotracheal tubes predispose patients to subglottic stenosis. If longer periods of mechanical ventilation are necessary, the tracheal tube should generally be replaced by a cuffed tracheostomy tube.
  • image The major effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the lungs is to increase functional residual capacity (FRC). In patients with decreased lung volume, appropriate levels of either PEEP or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) will increase FRC and tidal ventilation above closing capacity, will improve lung compliance, and will correct ventilation/perfusion abnormalities.
  • image A higher incidence of pulmonary barotrauma is observed with excessive PEEP or CPAP, particularly at levels greater than 20 cm H2O.
  • image Maneuvers that produce sustained maximum lung inflation such as the use of an incentive spirometer can be helpful in inducing cough as well as preventing atelectasis and preserving normal lung volume.
  • image While injury from high inspired oxygen concentrations has not been conclusively demonstrated in humans, Vt of 12 mL/kg was associated with greater mortality than Vt of 6 mL/kg and plateau pressure of less than 30 cm H2O in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.
  • image Early elective tracheal intubation is advisable when there are obvious signs of heat injury to the airway.
  • image The criteria developed by the Acute Kidney Injury Network are now most often used to stage acute kidney injury (AKI). AKI is diagnosed by documenting an increase in serum creatinine of more than 50%, or an absolute increase of 0.3 mg/dL, and a reduction in urine output to less than 0.5 mL/kg/h for 6 h or longer, with all findings developing over 48 h or less.
  • image Age greater than 70 years, corticosteroid therapy, chemotherapy of malignancy, prolonged use of invasive devices, respiratory failure, kidney failure, head trauma, and burns are established risk factors for nosocomial infections.
  • image Systemic venodilation and transudation of fluid into tissues result in a relative hypovolemia in patients with sepsis.


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