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  • Image not available. Although the intravascular half-life of a crystalloid solution is 20-30 min, most colloid solutions have intravascular half-lives between 3 and 6 h.
  • Image not available. Patients with a normal hematocrit should generally be transfused only after losses greater than 10-20% of their blood volume. The exact point is based on the patient’s medical condition and the surgical procedure.
  • Image not available. The most severe transfusion reactions are due to ABO incompatibility; naturally acquired antibodies can react against the transfused (foreign) antigens, activate complement, and result in intravascular hemolysis.
  • Image not available. In anesthetized patients, an acute hemolytic reaction is manifested by a rise in temperature, unexplained tachycardia, hypotension, hemoglobinuria, and diffuse oozing in the surgical field.
  • Image not available. Allogeneic transfusion of blood products may diminish immunoresponsiveness and promote inflammation.
  • Image not available. Immunocompromised and immunosuppressed patients (eg, premature infants, organ transplant recipients, and cancer patients) are particularly susceptible to severe transfusion-related cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. Ideally, such patients should receive only CMV-negative units.
  • Image not available. The most common cause of nonsurgical bleeding following massive blood transfusion is dilutional thrombocytopenia.
  • Image not available. Clinically important hypocalcemia, causing cardiac depression, will not occur in most normal patients unless the transfusion rate exceeds 1 unit every 5 min, and intravenous calcium salts should rarely be required in the absence of measured hypocalcemia.
  • Image not available. Once adequate tissue perfusion is restored, the most consistent acid-base abnormality following massive blood transfusion is metabolic alkalosis, caused by the rapid hepatic metabolism of citric acid and lactic acid to bicarbonate.

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Almost all patients undergoing surgical procedures require venous access for administration of intravenous fluids and medication, and some patients will require transfusion of blood components. The anesthesia provider should be able to assess intravascular volume with sufficient accuracy to correct existing fluid or electrolyte deficits and replace ongoing losses. Errors in fluid and electrolyte replacement or transfusion may result in morbidity or death.

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Clinical estimation of intravascular volume must be relied upon because objective measurements of fluid compartment volumes are not practical in the clinical environment. Intravascular volume can be estimated using patient history, physical examination, and laboratory analysis, often with the aid of sophisticated hemodynamic monitoring techniques. Regardless of the method employed, serial evaluations are necessary to confirm initial impressions and to guide fluid, electrolyte, and blood component therapy. Multiple modalities should complement one another, because all parameters are indirect, nonspecific measures of volume; reliance upon any one parameter may lead to erroneous conclusions.

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Patient History

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The patient history is an important tool in preoperative volume status assessment. Important factors include recent oral intake, persistent vomiting or diarrhea, gastric suction, significant blood loss or wound drainage, intravenous fluid and blood administration, and recent hemodialysis if the patient has kidney failure.

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Physical Examination

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Indications of hypovolemia include abnormal skin turgor, dehydration of mucous membranes, thready peripheral pulses, increased resting heart rate and decreased blood pressure, orthostatic heart rate and blood pressure changes from the supine to sitting or standing positions, and decreased urinary flow rate (Table ...

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