Skip to Main Content

++

  1. Fractional shortening (%) =

    Image not available.

  2. Velocity of circumferential fiber shortening (circ/sec) =

    fractional shortening × ejection time

  3. Fractional area change (%) =

    Image not available.

  4. Ejection fraction (%) =

    Image not available.

  5. Volume by Simpson's method of disks where the LV is modeled as a series of stacked cylindrical disks capped by an elliptical disk apex

    Volumecylindrical disks = (π × D1/2) × D2/2) × H

    where D1 and D2 are orthogonal diameters of the cylinder, and H is the height of the cylinder

    and

    Volumeelliptical disk = Ah/2 + a2/b2 × π × h3/6

    where A is the area of the ellipsoid segment, h is the height of the ellipsoid segment, and a and b are radii of the total ellipsoid.

  6. Volume by the area-length method where the LV is modeled as acylinder–hemi-ellipsoid

    Volume = (5 × area × major-axis length)/6

    where the area is planimetered by using a short-axis view at the level of the mitral valve

  7. Volume by the diameter-length method where the LV is modeled as a prolate-ellipsoid

    Volume = (π × D1 × D2 × major-axis length)/6

    where D1 and D2 are orthogonal short-axis diameters

  8. Stroke volume (ml) =

    (end-diastolic volume – end-systolic volume)

  9. Cardiac output (liters/min) = (stroke volume × heart rate)

  10. Cardiac index (liters/min/m2) =

    Image not available.

  11. Meriodinal wall stress

    Image not available.

    where P represents LV peak pressure, Ac is LV cavity area, and Am represents LV myocardial area (area of the muscle in the short-axis view)

  12. Circumferential wall stress

    Image not available.

    where L represents the LV long-axis length

  13. Strain (%) =

    Image not available.

    where length0 is the initial length

  14. Strain rate (s–1) =

    Image not available.

  15. LV mass (g) =

    (1.04 × [(LVID + PWT + IVST)3 – LVID3]) × 0.8 + 0.6

  16. dP/dt (mm Hg/s) =

    32 × 1000/dt

    where dt (in msec) is the time for velocity to rise from 1 m/s to 3 m/s on a continuous wave Doppler tracing of mitral regurgitation

  17. Myocardial performance index =

    Image not available.

++

  1. Fractional area change (%) =

    Image not available.

  2. Ejection fraction (%) =

    Image not available.

    using Simpson's method of disks

  3. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (mm) From the transgastric RV inflow view and using M-mode, the movement of the leading edge of the lateral tricuspid annulus attachment is tracked during systole, and its excursion measured

  4. Myocardial performance index =

    Image not available.

  5. dP/dt (mm Hg/s) =

    12 × 1000/dt

    where dt (in msec) is the time for velocity to rise from 1 m/s to 2 m/s on a continuous wave Doppler tracing of tricuspid regurgitation

++

  1. Doppler shift

    Image not available.

    Δf = Difference between the transmitted frequency (ft) and received frequency

    v = Velocity of red blood cells

    θ = Angle between the Doppler beam and the direction of blood flow

    c = Speed of ultrasound in blood (1540m/sec)

  2. Stroke volume (ml) =

    Stroke Distance × Cross Sectional Area (CSA)

    where

    Stroke Distance = LVOT or RVOT Velocity Time ...

Want remote access to your institution's subscription?

Sign in to your MyAccess profile while you are actively authenticated on this site via your institution (you will be able to verify this by looking at the top right corner of the screen - if you see your institution's name, you are authenticated). Once logged in to your MyAccess profile, you will be able to access your institution's subscription for 90 days from any location. You must be logged in while authenticated at least once every 90 days to maintain this remote access.

Ok

Create a Free MyAccess Profile

* Required Fields

Note: If you have registered for a MyAccess profile on any of the Access sites, you can use the same MyAccess login credentials across all sites.

Passwords must be between 6 and 40 characters long (no whitespace), cannot contain characters #, &, and must contain:
  • at least one lowercase letter
  • at least one uppercase letter
  • at least one digit

Benefits of a MyAccess Profile:

  • Remote access to the site off-campus on any device
  • Notification of new content via custom alerts
  • Bookmark your favorite content such as chapters, figures, tables, videos, cases and more
  • Save and download images to PowerPoint
  • Self-Assessment quizzes saved for quick review
  • Custom Curriculum access for both instructors and learners

Subscription Options

AccessAnesthesiology Full Site: One-Year Subscription

Connect to the full suite of AccessAnesthesiology content and resources including procedural videos, interactive self-assessment, real-life cases, 20+ textbooks, and more

$995 USD
Buy Now

Pay Per View: Timed Access to all of AccessAnesthesiology

24 Hour Subscription $34.95

Buy Now

48 Hour Subscription $54.95

Buy Now

Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.