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Structure

Measurement

View

Dimensiona (cm)

Chambers

Left atriumb

Diameter (A)

ME4C or ME2C

2.7-4.0

Right atriumc

Minor axis (B)

ME4C

2.9-4.5

Left ventricled

Wall thickness (septal) (C)

TGmidSAX

0.6-1.0

Wall thickness inferolateral (D)

TGmidSAX

0.6-1.0

Diameter (E)

ME2C or TG2C

3.9-5.9

Right ventricle

Basal diameter (F)

ME4C

2.0-2.8

Mid diameter (G)

ME4C

2.7-3.3

Length (H)

ME4C

7.1-7.9

Wall thickness (I)

ME4C or RV inflow-outflow

< 0.5

Tracts/Vessels

Right ventricular outflow

RVOT diameter (below PV) (J)

ME AV SAX or RV inflow-outflow

2.5-2.9

RVOT diameter (above PV) (K)

ME AV SAX or RV inflow-outflow

1.7-2.3

Aortic roote

Sinus of Valsalva (L)

ME AV LAX

2.6-4.0

Pulmonary arteryf

Diameter (M)

RV inflow-outflow

1.5-2.1

Inferior vena cavag

Diameter

ME4C (modified)

1.2-1.7

aAll dimensions are adapted from the ASE guidelines1 and include the normal ranges for adult men and women.

bLeft atrium (LA): The LA diameter cannot be reliably measured with TEE. Multiple views are recommended to obtain the diameter.

cRight atrium (RA): The RA should be measured from its lateral border to the interatrial septum. The TEE probe should be rotated slightly towards the right from the ME4C view to obtain optimal views of the RA.

dLeft ventricle (LV): The diameter of the LV should be measured at end-diastole in the two-chamber views to avoid foreshortening.

eAortic root: Normal dimensions of the aortic root, LV outflow tract, and aortic annulus are highly variable and dependent on body size. Standardized nomograms have been published elsewhere.2 These values represent ranges in aortic root diameter measured at the level of the sinus of Valsalva in individuals above 40 years.

fPulmonary artery (PA): There are no standardized TEE views for measuring the PA diameter. These values are adapted from the transthoracic parasternal short-axis view.

gInferior vena cava (IVC): There are no standardized TEE views for measuring the IVC diameter. The IVC may be measured 1 to 2 cm from its junction from the RA by rotating the TEE probe towards the right and withdrawing slightly from the ME4C view and following the IVC into the hepatic parenchyma.

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1. Lang RM, Bierig M, Devereux RB, et al. Recommendations for chamber quantification: a report from the American Society of Echocardiography's Guidelines and Standards Committee and the Chamber Quantification Writing Group, developed in conjunction with the European Association of Echocardiography, a branch of the European Society of Cardiology. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2005;18:1440-1463.  [PubMed: 16376782]
2. Roman MJ, Devereux RB, Kramer-Fox R, O'Loughlin J. Two-dimensional echocardiographic aortic root dimensions in normal children and adults. Am J Cardiol. 1989;64:507-512.  [PubMed: 2773795]

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