Skip to Main Content

++

A detailed transesophageal echocardiographic (TEE) examination of the right-sided heart valves can provide accurate diagnosis of valvular diseases; define anatomic, functional, and perivalvular abnormalities; and guide appropriate management. Integration of this information with the evaluation of the cardiac chambers is necessary to assess the degree of the pathology and determine its impact on cardiac function. In a review of 1918 cases undergoing intraoperative TEE prior to cardiac surgery, discrepant findings at the time of surgical inspection were present in only 48 patients, of which five involved the tricuspid and pulmonic valves.1 Therefore, this modality should yield adequate diagnostic accuracy when the exam is conducted appropriately. This chapter discusses the main pathologies involving the tricuspid and pulmonic valves leading to regurgitation and/or stenosis, and their assessment by two-dimensional TEE (Table 10–1). Even with the advent of three-dimensional matrix array probes allowing the acquisition of real-time images, optimal visualization of the tricuspid and pulmonary valves is seldom feasible2; therefore, their three-dimensional evaluation will depend on future improvements of this technology.

++
Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 10–1. Conditions Causing Tricuspid and Pulmonic Valve Dysfunction
++

Relevant Anatomical Landmarks

++

The tricuspid valve, the largest of the four cardiac valves, lies slightly below the plane of the mitral valve, and is in close proximity to the aortic valve. The three leaflets of the tricuspid valve are named anterior, posterior (inferior), and septal (medial) based on their relative positions (Figure 10–1). The septal leaflet's insertion point at the septum is more apically displaced than that of the anterior mitral leaflet. The two major papillary muscles, the anterior and posterior, are located on the corresponding walls of the right ventricle. Through their chordae tendineae, they attach to the anterior and posterior cusps, and the posterior and septal cusps, respectively. When present, a smaller septal papillary muscle attaches to the septal and anterior cusps.3 The three leaflets of the valve can be imaged using different angulations of the imaging plane together with flexion of the probe tip (see Figure 10–1).

++
Figure 10-1.
Graphic Jump Location

Schematic diagram of the heart that shows the spatial relationships of the valves. Note that the aortic valve plane is almost perpendicular ...

Want remote access to your institution's subscription?

Sign in to your MyAccess profile while you are actively authenticated on this site via your institution (you will be able to verify this by looking at the top right corner of the screen - if you see your institution's name, you are authenticated). Once logged in to your MyAccess profile, you will be able to access your institution's subscription for 90 days from any location. You must be logged in while authenticated at least once every 90 days to maintain this remote access.

Ok

About MyAccess

If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus.

Subscription Options

AccessAnesthesiology Full Site: One-Year Subscription

Connect to the full suite of AccessAnesthesiology content and resources including procedural videos, interactive self-assessment, real-life cases, 20+ textbooks, and more

$995 USD
Buy Now

Pay Per View: Timed Access to all of AccessAnesthesiology

24 Hour Subscription $34.95

Buy Now

48 Hour Subscription $54.95

Buy Now

Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.