Skip to Main Content


Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) training and certification have become standardized with the use of recognized nomenclature and tomographic views. A consistent nomenclature has the advantage of not only facilitating communication between physicians but also promoting the performance of comprehensive examinations. Familiarity with standard views enables the echocardiographer to spot abnormalities more easily and compare sequential images. However, in some patients, it will not be possible to obtain a complete set of perfect two-dimensional views because of time constraints, or because the patient's body habitus or anatomy impedes the ability to develop the appropriate imaging planes. With practice, a complete TEE examination generally can be performed in 10 minutes or less, with images recorded on videotape or, preferably, in a digital format. A written report should then be generated as part of the patient's medical record (see Chapter 25). Recommendations presented in this chapter primarily pertain to the widely available TEE equipment, which permits multiplane two-dimensional imaging. As experience with the newly available real-time three-dimensional (3D) TEE grows, standardized recommendations are sure to follow.


Guidelines for a comprehensive TEE examination have been established jointly by the American Society of Echocardiography and the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists.1 The indications for performing a TEE examination continue to evolve on the basis of evidence attesting to its value and the weight of expert opinion and are listed in Table 5–1.2

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 5–1. Recommendations for the Use of TEE in the Perioperative Period. 

Want remote access to your institution's subscription?

Sign in to your MyAccess profile while you are actively authenticated on this site via your institution (you will be able to verify this by looking at the top right corner of the screen - if you see your institution's name, you are authenticated). Once logged in to your MyAccess profile, you will be able to access your institution's subscription for 90 days from any location. You must be logged in while authenticated at least once every 90 days to maintain this remote access.


About MyAccess

If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus.

Subscription Options

AccessAnesthesiology Full Site: One-Year Subscription

Connect to the full suite of AccessAnesthesiology content and resources including procedural videos, interactive self-assessment, real-life cases, 20+ textbooks, and more

$995 USD
Buy Now

Pay Per View: Timed Access to all of AccessAnesthesiology

24 Hour Subscription $34.95

Buy Now

48 Hour Subscription $54.95

Buy Now

Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.