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TABLE A-1. Analgesic Agents
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Drug Route Usual Dose How Supplied Form Costa
Oral COX inhibitors
Acetaminophen PO 325-1000 mg 325, 500 mg Tablet 0.01
Aspirin PO 325-650 mg 325, 500 mg Tablet 0.01
Celecoxib  PO 50-400 mg

50 mg

100 mg

200 mg

400 mg

Capsule

Capsule

Capsule

Capsule

0.35

0.75

1.23

1.72

Diclofenac PO 50-75 mg

50 mg

75 mg

Tablet

Tablet

0.21

0.26

Diflunisal PO 500-1000 mg 500 mg Tablet 0.92
Etodolac PO 200-500 mg

200 mg

300 mg

400 mg

500 mg

Capsule

Capsule

Tablet

Tablet

0.54

0.56

0.25

0.35

Ibuprofen PO 200-800 mg

200 mg

400 mg

600 mg

800 mg

Tablet

Tablet

Tablet

Tablet

0.01

0.02

0.06

0.05

Indomethacin PO 25-50 mg 25 mg Capsule 0.02
Ketorolac PO 10 mg 10 mg Tablet 0.11
Naproxen PO 250-500 mg

250 mg

375 mg

500 mg

Tablet

Tablet

Tablet

0.20

0.17

0.10

Piroxicam

PO

PO

10-40 mg

10 mg

20 mg

Capsule

Capsule

0.78

0.27

Sulindac PO 150 mg 150 mg Tablet 0.12
Oral opioids
Codeine PO 30-60 mg

30 mg

60 mg

Tablet

Tablet

0.47

0.86

Codeine/acetaminophen PO 30-60 mg/300 mg

30/300 mg

60/300 mg

Tablet

Tablet

0.21

0.41

Hydrocodone/acetaminophen PO 5-7.5 mg/500-1000 mg

5 mg/500 mg

7.5 mg/750 mg

Tablet

Tablet

0.41

0.46

Hydromorphone PO 2-4 mgb 2 mg Tablet 0.34
Levorphanol PO 2 mgb 2 mg Tablet 1.61
Methadone PO 10-20 mgb 10 mg Tablet 0.11
Morphine PO 30-60 mg

30 mg

10 mg/mL, 5 mL

Tablet

Solution

0.35

0.25

Morphine sustained-release PO 30-60 mgb 30 mg Caplet 2.38
Oxycodone PO 5-10 mg 5 mg Tablet 0.38
Oxycodone/acetaminophen PO 5-10 mg/325-650 mg 5 mg/325 mg Caplet 0.17
Oxycodone sustained-release PO 10-20 mgb

10 mg

20 mg

40 mg

80 mg

Tablet

Tablet

Tablet

Tablet

1.85

3.53

6.27

11.80

Tramadol PO 50-100 mg 50 mg Tablet 0.11
Tramadol/acetaminophen PO 75 mg/650 mg 37.5 mg/325 mg Tablet 0.72
Transdermal/transmucosal opioids 
Fentanyl Transdermal 25-100 μg/hour

25 μg/hour

50 μg/hour

75 μg/hour

100 μg/hour

Patch

Patch

Patch

Patch

9.75

17.81

27.17

36.05

Fentanyl Transbuccal 200-1600 μg

200 μg

400 μg

800 μg

Lozenge

Lozenge

Lozenge

44.33

64.35

102.92

Parenteral COX inhibitors
Acetaminophen IV 1000 mg 10 mg/mL, 100 mL Solution 31.88
Diclofenac IV 37.5 mg 37.5 mg/ mL; 1 mL Solution 12.00
Ibuprofen IV 800 mg 100 mg/mL, 8 mL Solution 11.19
Ketorolac

IV

IM

30 mg

60 mg

30 mg/mL, 1 mL

30 mg/mL, 2 mL

Solution

Solution

0.75

0.39

Parecoxibc IV/IM 20-40 mg 40 mg Powder c
Parenteral opioids
Alfentanil IV 0.3-3 µg/kg/min 500 μg/mL, 5 mL Solution 1.14
Fentanyl IV 0.5-5 μg/kg

50 μg/mL, 2 mL

50 μg/mL, 5 mL

50 μg/mL, 20 mL

Solution

Solution

Solution

0.74

0.40

4.00

Hydromorphone IV/IM 0.5-2 mg 2 mg/mL, 1 mL Solution 0.76
Meperidine IV/IM/SC 12.5-100 mg 100 mg/mL, 1 mL Solution 0.65
Methadone IV 1-10 mg 10 mg/mL, 20 mL Solution 185.48
Morphine IV/IM/SC

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